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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more



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Subject: English Prepositions
Question:
I am a media specialist in an elementary school. A kindergarten teacher asked me why we say ''get on the bus'' but we say ''get in the car.'' The question arose when a teaching assistant originally from Southeast Asia told the children to get ''in'' the bus.

Also, a question has arisen about the use of the word ''on'' before yesterday and tomorrow as in ''on tomorrow.'' We use on before days of the week such as ''on Monday.'' Is it correct to use on before tomorrow or yesterday?

Thank you for making this service available.

Reply:
Hello--

As Professor Stahlke points out, prepositions in English (and in a lot of Indo-
European languages) are particularly weird and idiosyncratic.

For cars and buses, this might be a fun exercise for the kids; get them to list a
bunch of different vehicles, and then think about which ones you use 'in' and
'on' with, and maybe try to figure out the rules. Hmm, maybe I've just revealed
that I have an odd notion of 'fun'...

But doing this exercise by myself in the privacy of my office, I think maybe the
rules might be:

If the vehicle is one that you literally sit on top of, you have to use 'on'
(motorcycle, bicycle, horse...)

If the vehicle literally or metaphoricallly 'contains' you, and there isn't enough
space for people to walk around inside, you use 'in' for people who are riding
inside it (car, truck, tank?, canoe, kayak...)

If the vehicle contains you and there is enough space inside for people to stand
up and walk around, you typically use 'on' (bus, plane, ocean liner...)

Your mileage may vary, of course, but that's how it seems to work for me. The
size differences are clearest for me with boats; I definitely get in a canoe (and
not on), but I can get on a boat as long as it's big enough for me to stroll around
on the decks. Of course, you can use 'on' with the smaller vehicles as long as
you're planning to get on top of them; 'get on the car' means 'climb up onto the
hood'.

I hope this is useful--

--Norvin Richards

Reply From: Norvin Richards     click here to access email
Date: May-25-2005
Other Replies:
  1. Re: English Prepositions Herbert Frederic Stahlke    (May-25-2005)
  2. Re: English Prepositions Charley Rowe    (May-25-2005)
  3. Re: English Prepositions Nancy J. Frishberg    (May-25-2005)
  4. Re: English Prepositions Geoffrey Sampson    (May-26-2005)
  5. Re: English Prepositions Anthea Fraser Gupta    (May-29-2005)
  6. Re: English Prepositions Suzette Haden Elgin    (May-29-2005)

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