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What is the correct terminology of this scenario?
I want to take the French word, ''Pensable'' and change the
pronunciation, while keeping the same definition.
French - Pensable (Paw-Sah-Bleh) ''imaginable''
English - Pensable (Pen-Suh-Bul) ''imaginable''
I was thinking it was a Heteronym, but it says that the
pronunciation AND the meaning are different. I just want the sound
to differ, not the definition.
That would be a loanword, as you say in your subject line. This is a technical term in linguistics.
Speakers typically adapt the pronunciation of loanwords (or borrowings, an alternative term) to the phonology of the host language, and they borrow the words precisely to mean something that words of the host language don’t mean. Pizza, internet, bungalow are examples of "international" loanwords.
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