Teaching is one of the most challenging professions because it brings individuals of different backgrounds (teachers and learners) into a very close relationship. The process of teaching/learning arguably constitutes the most important aspect of this relationship, but it is intimately connected with other complex personal, social, cultural, and even historical and political factors. A teacher is not a neutral entity, nor does s/he teach in a social, cultural, and historical vacuum. Similarly, the learner is not a tabula rasa, subject to the teacher's inscriptions. Inevitably, the process of education will elicit critical questions or even resistance. Teaching foreign languages and literatures to non-native speakers may pose challenges for both teachers and students. These challenges may be administrative, technical, pedagogical, linguistic, social, cultural, political, or even a combination of all. This conference aims at exploring these challenges in different teaching situations and environments.