LINGUIST List 10.1119

Fri Jul 23 1999

Qs: Women & Pitch in L2, Connectives, Parsers

Editor for this issue: Karen Milligan <karenlinguistlist.org>


We'd like to remind readers that the responses to queries are usually best posted to the individual asking the question. That individual is then strongly encouraged to post a summary to the list. This policy was instituted to help control the huge volume of mail on LINGUIST; so we would appreciate your cooperating with it whenever it seems appropriate.

Directory

  1. S. Silberstein, Pitch and women learners of Arabic and Japanese
  2. Sebastien DRUON, Looking for articles on connectives
  3. Karen Smith, ERGO: Parser Integrity

Message 1: Pitch and women learners of Arabic and Japanese

Date: Thu, 22 Jul 1999 22:04:02 -0700 (PDT)
From: S. Silberstein <tqu.washington.edu>
Subject: Pitch and women learners of Arabic and Japanese

A number of years ago, someone told me of a study in which female native
speakers of American English learning Japanese and Arabic from male native
speakers of those languages were found to speak Arabic and Japanese at a
lower pitch than native speaking Arabic and Japanese women. Does anyone
have a citation for this or any other knowledge of the source of this
observation?

Sandy Silberstein
University of Washington
tqu.washington.edu
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Message 2: Looking for articles on connectives

Date: Fri, 23 Jul 1999 13:41:18 +0200
From: Sebastien DRUON <sebastien.druoninfonie.fr>
Subject: Looking for articles on connectives

I'm looking for articles / sites on the following subject : connectives
particularily in french and accessorily in other languages, for my
master's thesis .

I you can suggest me any sites where I could find articles ...

Thank you in advance .

Sebastien Druon.

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Message 3: ERGO: Parser Integrity

Date: Tue, 20 Jul 1999 15:38:29 -1000
From: Karen Smith <smithkarhtdc.org>
Subject: ERGO: Parser Integrity




To the readers. 	

I am a linguist working at Ergo Linguistic Technologies in Honolulu,
HI. We are currently attempting to refresh and update our collection
of parsers and parser web sites. We currently have the following
parsers in our offices: Davy Temperley, Daniel Sleator, and John
Lafferty's "The Link Grammar Parser" from Carnegie Mellon University,
"LFG" from Xerox PARC, "Apple Pie Parser" from NYU, "ENGCG Constraint
Grammar Parser of English" from Lingsoft, Inc., "The Functional
Dependency Grammar Parser" of Atro Voutilainen and Mikko Silvonen from
Finland, Georgetown University's "Natural Language Processing Parser",
Stanford University's "LinGO Parser", Prospero Software's "Parser
Version 1.0 for DOS", "The FranklinParser" from Proximity Technology,
Inc., and "Natural Language Parser Demo" from The University of
Finland's Natural Language Processing Department. If anyone knows of
any other parsers,especially from universities or high technology
development corporations like IBM or Microsoft, please let me know.
We are also looking for software tools which use parsers as an
internal component. We will post a complete list of these tools and
the relevant websites on our homepage on a "related sites" link. All
feedback is welcomed.

The standards by which each of the parsers listed below were judged
can be located at the Ergo Linguistic Technologies website under
"parser contest". Here you will find a full explanation of what Ergo
Linguistic Technologies feels the standards for parsing technology
should be. Basically, the analysis is broken into seven different
areas, each having several objectives which need to be met. The seven
categories are as follows: structural analysis of strings, evaluation
of strings, manipulation of strings, question/answer,
statement/response repartee, recognition of the essential identity of
synonymous structures, navigation and control, and lexicography.


CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY [LINK GRAMMAR]
The Link Grammar Parser is "a syntactic parser of English, based on
link grammar, an original theory of English syntax." This parser
identifies parts of speech, parts of sentence, internal clauses and
sentence type, but does not identify tense and voice of main clause
and internal clauses (identifies tense only). It recognizes
acceptable strings, gives number of correct parses that succeeded,
identifies phrases of acceptable parses, and gives the number of
unacceptable parses that were tried, but does not give the exact time
of the parses in seconds or reject unacceptable strings. It has no
manipulation of strings. It identifies whether a string is a yes/no
question, a wh-question, or a command, but does not have any other
statement/response, question/answer repartee. It demonstrates no
recognition of the essential identity of synonymous structures and
demonstrates no navigation and control functions. The lexicon has
60,000 words and the core vocabulary is suitable to a wide variety of
applications. The parser recognizes single and multi-word items and
recognizes a variety of grammatical features. It does not have tools
to facilitate the addition, modification, or deletion of lexical
entries and it can not mark and link synonyms and classes of lexical
items. The output of this parser is in the form of a tree diagram
consisting of a series of linkages. Each link is marked with Link
Grammar's own proprietary labels. This system was found to be rather
hard to follow since at every link one must refer back to a previous
page to uncover the meaning of that particular link.
	http://bobo.link.cs.cmu.edu/grammar/html/intro.html

LINGSOFT, INC. [ENGCG CONSTRAINT GRAMMAR PARSER OF ENGLISH]
This parser, developed at the Department of General Linguistics at the
University of Helsinki, gives a morphological analysis of running
English text. It identifies the parts of speech and parts of the
sentence, but does not identify internal clauses, sentence type or
tense and voice of the main clause or internal clauses. It does
identify the phrases of successful parses, but does not recognize
acceptable strings, reject unacceptable strings, give the correct
number of parses that succeeded or the number of unacceptable parses
that were tried. It also does not give the exact time of parses in
seconds. This parser generates no manipulation of strings. It is
capable of identifying whether a string is a statement, yes/no
question, wh-question or a command, but demonstrates no other
question/answer, statement/response repartee. This parser also
recognizes the heads of phrases with and without associated modifiers,
but it has no other recognition of the essential identity of
synonymous structures. It distinguishes commands from questions and
statements, but does not distinguish commands for OS characters or
programs, does not provide a sufficiently detailed analysis of
commands to allow proper responses, and it does not recognize
synonymous commands. There is no data available on the size of the
lexicon, but it does recognize single and multi-word items, recognizes
a variety of grammatical features, and has a core vocabulary that is
suitable to a wide variety of applications. However, it can not mark
and link synonyms and classes of lexical items, and it does not have
tools to facilitate the addition, modification, and deletion of
lexical entries. The output of this parser is in the form of a list
which provides a part of speech and part of sentence analysis.
http://www.lingsoft.fi/cgi-pub/engcg

UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI [FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCY GRAMMAR PARSER FOR ENGLISH]
This parser gives a surface-syntactic analysis of a running text.
This parser identifies parts of speech and parts of the sentence, but
does not identify internal clauses, sentence type or tense and voice
of the main clause or internal clauses. It does identify the phrases
of successful parses, but does not recognize acceptable strings,
reject unacceptable strings, give the correct number of parses that
succeeded or the number of unacceptable parses that were tried. It
also does not give the exact time of parses in seconds. This parser
generates no manipulation of strings, and has no question/ answer,
statement/response repartee. Furthermore, it does not recognize the
essential identity of synonymous structures and demonstrates no
navigation and control functions. No information was available on the
size of the lexicon, but it does recognize single and multi-word
items, a variety of grammatical features, and seems to have a core
vocabulary that is suitable to a wide variety of applications.
However, it does not have any tools to facilitate the addition,
modification, or deletion of lexical entries and it is unable to mark
and link synonyms and classes of lexical items. The output of this
parser provides a part of speech and some part of sentence analysis in
the form of a list.
http://www.ling.helsinki.fi/~tapanain/dg/eng/demo.html

GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY [NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING PARSER MODULARITY
DEMONSTRATION]
This parser identifies parts of speech and parts of the sentence, but
does not identify internal clauses, sentence type or tense and voice
of the main clause or internal clauses. It does recognize acceptable
strings and reject unacceptable strings, gives the number of correct
parses that succeeded, but not the number of unacceptable parses that
were tried. It also identifies the phrases of acceptable parses and
gives the exact time of parses in seconds. This parser demonstrates
no manipulation of strings or question/answer, statement/response
repartee. It also can not recognize the essential identity of
synonymous structures and demonstrates no navigation and control
functions. The lexicon does not contain a minimum of 50,000 words,
but rather has only 23,000 entries. However, it does recognize single
and multi-word items as well as a variety of grammatical features. It
also has tools which facilitate the addition, modification, and
deletion of lexical items. However, its core vocabulary is not
suitable to a wide variety of applications and it is unable to mark
and link synonyms and classes of lexical items. The output of this
parser provides a part of speech analysis for each word in the
sentence in the form of a list.
http://www.georgetown.edu/cgi-bin/compling/slctscr.pl

STANFORD UNIVERSITY [LINGO]
Linguistic Grammars Online or LinGo is a "multi-purpose broad-coverage
grammar of English". This parser identifies parts of speech and tense
and voice of the main clause, but the output from the parse is not
very clear. It does not identify parts of the sentence, internal
clauses, the tense and voice of internal clauses, or sentence type.
It recognizes acceptable strings, unacceptable strings, gives the
number of correct parses that succeeded, and identifies the phrases of
successful parses. However, it does not give the number of
unacceptable parses that were tried or the exact time of parses in
seconds. This parser is able to identify tense and voice in sentences
with and without internal clauses, but demonstrates no other
manipulation of strings. It identifies tense in questions, but does
not identify the appropriate tense for responses. It shows no other
question/answer, statement/response repartee. It also shows no
recognition of the essential identity of synonymous structures and
demonstrates no navigation or control functions. There was no
information available on the size of the lexicon, however many words
were found in the dictionary. It recognizes single and multi-word
items and recognizes a variety of grammatical functions. However, it
does not have tools to facilitate the addition, modification, and
deletion of lexical entries and it is not able to mark and link
synonyms and classes of lexical items. The output of this parser
provides a part of speech analysis, however it is somewhat hard to
follow and no explanation of the labels were given. Upon
corresponding with Rob Malouf via email about this, I was referred to
another web address containing a document which explains the labels
more thoroughly. This explanation can be found at
ftp://ftp-csli.stanford.edu/linguistics/sag/mrs.ps.gz
http://hpsg.stanford.edu.8000/lingo/parser.html

PROSPERO SOFTWARE [PARSER VERSION 1.0 FOR DOS]
This parser is able to identify parts of speech, but it is not able to
identify parts of a sentence, internal clauses, sentence type, or
tense and voice of the main clause or internal clauses. This parser
shows no evaluation of strings or manipulation of strings. It does
identify tense in questions, but does not identify the appropriate
tense for responses. It demonstrates no other question/answer,
statement/response repartee and demonstrates no recognition of the
essential identity of synonymous structures or navigation and control
functions. This parser has a large dictionary with several hundred
thousand entries, well above the suggested 50,000. It recognizes
single and multi-word units as well as a variety of grammatical
features. The core vocabulary is suitable to a wide variety of
applications however, the parser does not have tools to facilitate the
addition, modification or deletion of lexical entries and it is unable
to mark and link synonyms and classes of lexical items. This parser's
output provides a part of speech analysis in the form of a list.
http://www.prosperosoftware.com/np1id2.html

PROXIMITY TECHNOLOGY, INC [FRANKLIN PARSER]
This parser can be found in Ken Litkowski's Dictionary Maintenance
Programs also referred to as DIMAP. This parser identifies parts of
speech, parts of a sentence, and internal clauses, but it is not able
to identify sentence type, tense and voice of main and internal
clauses. The Franklin parser does not recognize acceptable strings or
reject unacceptable strings. It also does not give the number of
correct parses that succeeded or the number of unacceptable parses
that were tried. It also does not give the exact time of parses in
seconds. However, it does identify the phrases of successful parses.
It does not show any manipulation of strings, question/answer,
statement/response repartee, recognition of the essential identity of
synonymous structures, or navigation and control functions. The
dictionary includes more than 120,000 headwords and the core
vocabulary is suitable to a wide variety of applications. The parser
recognizes single and multi-word items as well as a variety of
grammatical features , but it is not able to mark and link synonyms
and classes of lexical items. This parser's output provides a part of
speech and part of sentence analysis in the form of a chart.
http://proximity.franklin.com/parse.htm

UNIVERSITY OF FINLAND'S NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING DEPT. [NATURAL
LANGUAGE PARSER]
This parser has not been thoroughly examined as of the present.
Preliminary assessments show that the parser identifies parts of
speech and parts of sentence, but does not identify internal clauses,
sentence type, tense and voice of main and internal clauses. It also
recognizes acceptable strings and rejects unacceptable strings. This
parser is case sensitive. It gives the correct number of parses that
succeeded, but does not give the number of unacceptable parses that
were tried or the exact time of parses in seconds. It shows no
manipulation of strings, question/answer, statement/response repartee
or recognition of the essential identity of synonymous structures.
The lexicon uses a collection of dictionaries such as CUOVALD, Word
Net, and Link Grammar, so the core vocabulary is suitable for a wide
variety of applications and it recognizes a variety of grammatical
features and single and multi-word items. A more complete analysis of
this parser will be completed in the near future. The output of this
parser provides a part of speech and some part of sentence analysis in
the form of a tree diagram. http://pointti.vip.fi/nlpd.html


XEROX PARC [LFG PARSER]
This parser is currently undergoing evaluation and a complete analysis
will be posted to our website when it is available. We are in the
process of contacting Xerox PARC for more information about this
product. ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/lfg/

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY [APPLE PIE PARSER]
This parser is currently undergoing analysis. When analysis is available,
it will be posted to our website.
http://cs.nyu.edu/cs/projects/proteus/app/index.html

UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA [MINIPAR]
This parser was downloaded, but the demo was unable to be opened. Our
programmer is currently working on the problem. When an analysis is
available, it will be posted to the website.
http://www.cs.umanitoba.ca/~lindek/minipar/htm


and of course our own parser at ...

ERGO LINGUISTICTECHNOLOGIES
http://www.ergo-ling.com/

For those of you who would like to look at and compare parsers but are
unfamiliar with parsing, you can go to the Ergo web site "Parsing
Contest" page to find good test sentences and a discussion of
standards for comparing parsers. It should take just a few hours to
actually go through, look at and try all these parsers.

Karen Smith
Linguist
Ergo Linguistic Technologies
2800 Woodlawn Dr., Ste. 175
Honolulu, HI 96822
							
Tel (808) 539-3920
Fax (808) 539 -3924
smithkarhtdc.org
http://www.ergo-ling.com/
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