LINGUIST List 10.1210

Tue Aug 17 1999

Qs: Metaphor, AUX, Setswana/Sesothu clicks

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  1. zmaalej, On Metaphor as Evaluative Modality
  2. Erika Mitchell, History of AUX
  3. Nick Reid, Setswana and Sesothu clicks

Message 1: On Metaphor as Evaluative Modality

Date: Mon, 16 Aug 1999 17:56:24 +0200
From: zmaalej <>
Subject: On Metaphor as Evaluative Modality

Dear List Members,

Metaphor has been studied as process and product (Gibbs, 1999;
Allbritton, 1995; etc.), as a similarity-creating phenomenon (Ortony,
1979; Glucksberg & Keysar, 1990; etc.), as enhancing intimacy between
speaker and hearer (Cohen, 1979), etc. However, I have seen very few
studies (Averill, 1990) of metaphor as an evaluative modality, i.e. as
an instantiation of speaker attitude. Could anybody direct me to any
relevant literature? Your collaboration is mostly valued. Thank you in

Zouhair Maalej,
Department of English Chair,
Faculty of Letters, Manouba, 2010,
University of Tunis I, TUNISIA.
Office Phone: (+216) 1 600 700 Ext. 174
Office Fax: (+216) 1 520 910
Home Tel/Fax: (+216) 1 362 871
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Message 2: History of AUX

Date: Tue, 17 Aug 1999 04:02:25 -0700 (PDT)
From: Erika Mitchell <>
Subject: History of AUX

For a current research project, I am trying to uncover the source of
AUX. Might any of you be able to help me find the answers to the
following questions, or even point me in a likely direction?

1. When did Aux first become AUX, and why? That is, when did the
change to capital letters occur? What was the motivation? In the
early TG literature, it was written in lower-case letters, but
sometime in the 1970s it was changed to upper case. Was this simply a
typographical shift, or was there something more to it? Any pre-1970
reference using AUX (in capital letters) would be appreciated.

2. When was Aux first placed as one of three nodes hanging directly
from S? That is, when did we see the tripartite S->NP Aux VP for the
first time? Chomsky 65, chapter 2, ex. 3 assumes this structure, but
for example, Lees 1960 and Klima 1964 use a structure that is
virtually identical to Chomsky 1955, chapter 8. Any pre-1965
references using a tripartite structure for S would be appreciated.

If you can provide information on either of these topics, or any other
insight on the early history of the category Aux (AUX), I would be
most appreciative. I will summarize to the list any responses.

Erika Mitchell
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Message 3: Setswana and Sesothu clicks

Date: Tue, 17 Aug 1999 14:01:40 +1000
From: Nick Reid <>
Subject: Setswana and Sesothu clicks

The two snippets of text below have been given to me by Setswana and
Sesothu speakers on my campus. My interest is in the
place-of-articulation/manner-of-release of the clicks, by I have no
expertise in these languages. Orthographic tl sounds to me like a
dental click with lateral release. Orthographic q sounds to me like an
alveolar click. Can anyone with knowledge of these languages help out?
I further believe that some words in both these languages are written
with orthographic qh, and I'd like to know whether that represents a
distinct phonemic click, or just a different spelling convention. (Of
course the answers may not be the same for both languages)

Ke tlo u qoqela moqoqo o qalang leqepheng la ho qetela.
I fut you tell story that starts page the
last one
I'm going to tell you the story that starts on the last page.

Ke bone ntlole a tlolatlola mo tshimong ya ditloo ka letlatlan.
I saw squirrel that jumping in garden of peas in evening
I saw a squirrel jumping in a garden of peas in the evening.

any advice, gratefully received, should be sent direct to
thanks in advance
Nick Reid

Dr Nicholas Reid
School of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics
University of New England
Armidale 2351, AUSTRALIA

ph: +61 [0]2 6773 3400
fax: +61 [0]2 6773 3735
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