LINGUIST List 12.1525

Sun Jun 10 2001

FYI: Japanese Discourse, Lang Policy, Aramaic-Hebrew

Editor for this issue: Jody Huellmantel <>


  1. Yumiko Ohara, Symposium at the National Language Research Institute (Japan)
  2. Harold F. Schiffman, Consortium for Language Policy and Planning
  3. Elaine Keown, Aramaic-Hebrew character set

Message 1: Symposium at the National Language Research Institute (Japan)

Date: Thu, 7 Jun 2001 15:50:05 +0900
From: Yumiko Ohara <>
Subject: Symposium at the National Language Research Institute (Japan)

As part of International Collaborative research concerning Japanese
Communication currently being conducted by the National Language Research
Institute (Japan), a symposium entitled "Various approaches to Japanese
discourse: Conversationanalysis, Discourse analysis, and Critical discourse
analysis" will be held on June16th from 2 pm to 5 pm at the National
Language Research Institute (Japan).

Yumiko Ohara, the National Language Research Institute (Japan)
 Media ni kansuru kuritikaru disukoosu bunseki
 (A critical discourse analysis of media discourse)

Scott Saft, University of Tsukuba (Japan)
 Conversation Analysis and Japanese discourse: The case of aizuchi

Haruko Cook, University of Hawai'i at Manoa (USA)
 An indexical analysis of the Japanese plain forms

Reiko Hayashi, Konan Women's University (Japan)
 Aimaihyoogen ni yoru afekuto to sutansu no hyoomei
 (Manifestation of affect and stance by vague expressions)

If you would like to attend, please contact Yumiko Ohara by email, her
address is
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Message 2: Consortium for Language Policy and Planning

Date: Fri, 8 Jun 2001 09:59:50 -0400 (EDT)
From: Harold F. Schiffman <>
Subject: Consortium for Language Policy and Planning

This is to announce the formation of a Consortium for Language Policy and
Planning, to be hosted by the University of Pennsylvania's Penn Language
Center and Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict. 

The Consortium is an unincorporated assembly of a number of research
universities, advocacy bodies, and other scholars interested in issues of
language policy and planning. 

Research Universities are those with programs involving several
scholars, disciplines, departments, or schools focused (in whole or in
part) on language policy study:

	Current members are:

 City University of New York (Graduate Center); 
	Long Island University, 
	New York University, 
	Stanford University,
	University of Pennsylvania. 

Individual Scholars are typically located at institutions without
established programs, other than their own research interests.

Advocacy Bodies are organizations, institutes, centers etc. whose main
goal is not research, but are primarily devoted to the advocacy of
issues surrounding language policy and conflict.

MISSION: The objectives of the Consortium are to enhance the quality of
research, teaching, and information-dissemination on the subject of
language policy formation and study; to strengthen similarly-oriented
programs of its member institutions, and to foster dialogue on the process
of language policy formation in situations of ethnic and linguistic
conflict in the modern world. 

In particular, the Consortium for Language Policy and Planning will
have as a primary focus projects that are educational and
informational--the Consortium will sponsor workshops, summer
institutes, informational and short-courses designed to bring to
public discussion issues affecting schools and other multilingual
sites of contention in contemporary America and other parts of the

The Consortium welcomes new members and/or affiliations with similarly-
oriented institutions. For more information, consult the Consortium's
website at:
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Message 3: Aramaic-Hebrew character set

Date: 7 Jun 2001 12:34:26 -0700
From: Elaine Keown <>
Subject: Aramaic-Hebrew character set


Below is a preliminary list of the Aramaic-Hebrew character set. It
is the result of two years of research, including collaboration with
Dr. Seth Jerchower, a scholar of Judeo-Romance, and Prof. Paul
Flesher, an Aramaist.

I am sending the list around to e-discussion groups to begin public
review on it. Public review is a requirement for international
computer standards work. However, I also am sure that the list is
incomplete for Samaritan Aramaic and Hebrew dialects and in the

I have just been given Web space and hope to put up a site in 4-8
weeks with scanned images of the list items. When finished, I will
send you the URL.

In probably 16-20 months a technical proposal will be written to
either the ISO (Geneva, Switzerland) or The Unicode Consortium
(Mountain View, California) which will contain an improved version of
this list.

When Unicode and ISO process the proposal and accept whichever subset
of the list they like (probably 80-90%), then these symbols will be
added to ISO 10646/Unicode, which means they can be used online much
more easily, may be supported by more font manufacturers, and might
even be supported by standard software manufacturers.

Thank you,
Elaine Keown
NOTE: footnote numbers are in ( ).


 Complete Net 
 symbol count(29) count(30)
SECTION A.. Ancient or common symbols
1. Most ancient 22-letter alphabet 22 22
2. Ancient epigraphic symbols(31) 12 12
3. Ezra's points (32) 2 2
4. Medial letters 5 5
5. Tiberian pointing and other 53 52
 masoretic apparatus
6. Other Hebrew ms symbols(33) 7 7
Net subset totals 100
SECTION B. Variant letters for regional Jewish 
languages written in square script
7. Arabic(34) 6 4
8. Berber(36) 1 0
9. Persian(37) 3 0
10. Tajik(38) (Bukhari) 4 2
11. Tat(39) 3 2
12. Krimchak(40) 3 1
13. Neo-Aramaic(41,42) (Kurdit) 3 1
14. Greek(43) 3 1
15. French(44) 7 3
16. Shuadit(45), Comtadin(46) 1 0
17. Italian(47) 6 1
18. Ladino(48) 4 2
19. Yiddish(49) 6 3
Net subset totals 20

SECTION C. Other pointing, reading, masoretic systems
20. Babylonian(50) 39 35
21. Palestinian(51) 31 18
22. Samaritan(52) 21 12
Net subset totals 65
SECTION D. Rare or unique symbols
23. Bodleian Hebrew e63, fol. 106r- 2 1
24. Cairo Codex(54) 1 1
Net subset totals 2

Total Aramaic-Hebrew symbols found to date: 187 


29. This number includes the complete set of extra symbols found in
the subset.

30. This number is the net number of symbols after subtracting those
found in more than one category.

31. Y. AHARONI, Arad Inscriptions, Jerusalem, 1986, p. 34. This
count includes the ten widely used numerals, originally from New
Kingdom Egyptian, found in Hebrew, Aramaic, Judeo-Persian, Nabataean,
etc. epigraphy, ostraca, bullae, and other materials. For an
excellent presentation, see G. IFRAH, The universal history of
numbers: from prehistory to the invention of the computer, New York,
2000, pp. 236-237. See also R. DEUTSCH, New epigraphic evidence from
the Biblical period, Tel Aviv, 1995. For their use in Aramaic edicts
of A?oka, see G. Pugliese CARRATELLI and G. GARBINI, A bilingual
Graeco-Aramaic edict by A?oka, Roma, 1969, p. 43.

32. These two very old points, an upper middle and a lower middle
dot, occur in Qumran texts and are found in Torah scrolls. Aboth de
R. Nathan calls them Ezra's points. Later, European-influenced
literature calls them "puncta extraordinaria." See Aaron DOTAN,
"Masorah," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 1971, col. 1408. See
R. BUTIN, The ten nequdoth of the Torah, New York, 1969, p. XXV, 23.

33. Here I include inverted nuns, pehs, and tsadis plus the two
abbreviation symbols ( and ).

34. Benjamin HARY, "Adaptations of Hebrew script," in Peter
T. DANIELS, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford, 1995, pp. 727-734.

35. Judeo-Arabic texts were apparently first computerized at Dropsie
by Prof. Lawrence V. Berman. Later in the 1970s Prof. Alan Corr?
produced a computerized lexicon.

36. P. GALAND-PERNET, Une version berb?re de la haggadah de Pesach,
Paris, 1970. See also M. O'CONNOR, "The Berber scripts," in DANIELS,
cited above, p. 115.

37. Judeo-Persian, Bukhari, and Tat are dialects of Persian from
different areas. See Herbert PAPER, A Judeo-Persian Pentateuch,
Jerusalem, 1972, p. for the alphabet.

38. Nissim TAGGER, Milon Ivri-Bukhari, Tel Aviv, 1960, passim.

39. Harald HAARMAN, "Yiddish and the other Jewish languages in the
Soviet Union," in J. FISHMAN, ed., Readings in the Sociology of Jewish
languages, Leiden, 1985, p. 165.

40. Krimchak, a Kipchak Turkic language, also called Judeo-Crimean
Tatar, is one of at least three Turkic Rabbanite or Karaite languages
(the others are Karaim and Khazar). For Krimchak symbols, see
I. IANBAY and M. ERDAL, The Krimchak Translation of the Book of Ruth,
Mediterranean Language Review, 10, 1998, pp. 1-53. See also
W. MOSKOVITZ, "Krimchak Language," Encyclopaedia Judaica Yearbook
1988/9, Jerusalem, 1989, p. 371.

41. The languages called "Kurdit" in Modern Hebrew are actually
Neo-Aramaic dialects, originally from Kurdistan and other regions.
See I. AVINERY, The Aramaic dialect of the Jews of Zakho, Jerusalem,
1988, p. v.

42. For symbols, see Yona SABAR, Targum de-Targum: an old Neo-Aramaic
version of the Targum on Song of Songs, Wiesbaden, p. 9.

43. For some symbols, see Nicholas DE LANGE, Greek Jewish Texts from
the Cairo Genizah, Tubingen, 1996, pp. 5-79.

44. Menachem BANITT, The glossaire de B?le. Texte. Academie
Nationale des Sciences et des Lettres d'Israel, Jerusalem, 1972,
pp. ix, x.

45. For Shuadit symbols, see Susan SILBERSTEIN, The Provencal Esther
Poem Written in Hebrew Characters c. 1327 by Crescas de Caylar:
Critical Edition. Dissertation, 1973, University of Pennsylvania,
pp. 260-272.

46. For symbols of Comtadin, see E. SABATIER, Chansons
H?bra?co-Provencales des Juifs Comtadins, Paris, 1927, pp. 11-12.

47. Alan FREEDMAN, Italian texts in Hebrew characters: problems of
interpretation, Wiesbaden, 1972, p. 123.

48. B. HARY, "Judeo-Spanish (Ladino)," in DANIELS, cited above, p. 734. 

49. Howard ARONSON, "Yiddish," in DANIELS, pp. 735-742. 

50. Paul KAHLE, Der Masoretische Text des Alten Testaments nach der
?berlieferung des Babylonischen Juden, Leipzig, 1902, pp. 24, 34,

51. Manfried DIETRICH, Neue pal?stinisch punktierte Bibelfragmente:
Ver?ffentlich und auf Text und Punktation hin untersucht, Leiden,
1968, p. 88* [Tafel II]. This count does not include variant
Palestinian marks such as found in Genizah materials.

52. Rudolf MACUCH, Grammatik des Samaritanischen Hebr?isch, Berlin,
1969, pp. 61-76.

53. Ugo MARAZZI, Tevarihi Ali Osman: cronaca anonima ottamana in
trascrizione ebraica, Napoli, 1980.

54. Mar?a Josefa de AZCARRAGA-SERVERT, "El ketib/qere en el libro de
Josue del Codice de Profetas de El Cairo," Proceedings of the Eleventh
Congress of the International Organization for Masoretic Studies
(IOMS), Jerusalem, 1994, p. 7.
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