LINGUIST List 12.1646

Fri Jun 22 2001

Books: Pragmatics / Caucasian Linguistics

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  1. LINCOM EUROPA, Pragmatics: Speaking of Power by H. Abe
  2. LINCOM EUROPA, Caucasian Linguistics: The Udi Gospels by W. Schulze

Message 1: Pragmatics: Speaking of Power by H. Abe

Date: Fri, 22 Jun 2001 11:45:38 +0200
Subject: Pragmatics: Speaking of Power by H. Abe

Speaking of Power: 
Japanese Professional Women and Their Speeches
Western Michigan University

There are three issues in the speech of Japanese women which need
reevaluation: women's speech as categorical, as powerless, and as
marked. Previous studies on Japanese women's speech characterized it
"polite", "soft", or "less assertive"; however, the author challenges
these assertions and examines how women "control" their speech in
interaction. There are pressing questions as to what it is to obtain
communicative competence as Japanese women, how women obtain what they
want, how women manipulate their speech to satisfy their goals, and
how women's role and/or status affects how they speak. In order to
answer these questions, the author looks to various immediate speech
contexts in which frequent inguistic shifts are observed. For
instance, native speakers of Japanese associate sentence-final
particles with gender, so by looking at these (with the combination of
distal and direct styles of predicates), the author analyzes how women
navigate "masculinity" or "femininity" in speech in order to negotiate
power. While some women prefer using so-called "masculine"
sentence-final particles in business negotiation, others prefer
"feminine" ones. The author finds that urban professional Japanese
women are aware of the distinction between the "femininity" and
"masculinity" attached to a sentence-final particle. That difference
is distinguishable, but it is generally idealized along the lines of
dominant gender stereotypes: men's language=strong /women's
language=weak. Significantly, female consultants consistently use
both. In other words, they can successfully negotiate both
"masculinity" and "femininity" without being constrained by either.
Some consultants appropriate men's language while struggling for
power, turning the stereotype to their own advantage. Other
consultants who have established their power use feminine forms in
just as powerful ways. The status of position outweighs the weakness
implied by the stereotype.

2nd edition 

ISBN 3 89586 890 6. 
LINCOM Studies in Pragmatics 10. 
Ca. 170 pp. USD 48 / DM 92 / � 29.

New: A Students' and course discount of 40% is offered to the above title. 

Ordering information for individuals: Please give us your creditcard
no. / expiry date. Prices in this information include shipment
worldwide by airmail. A standing order for this series is available
with special discounts offered to individual subscribers.

Free copies of LINCOM'S newsflashes 24 & 25 are now available from

LINCOM EUROPA, Freibadstr. 3, D-81543 Muenchen, Germany;
FAX +49 89 62269404;
Mail to author|Respond to list|Read more issues|LINGUIST home page|Top of issue

Message 2: Caucasian Linguistics: The Udi Gospels by W. Schulze

Date: Fri, 22 Jun 2001 13:21:28 +0200
Subject: Caucasian Linguistics: The Udi Gospels by W. Schulze

Wolfgang Schulze
The Udi Gospels - Annotated Text, Etymological Index, Lemmatized Concordance 
Ludwig-Maximilian Universitaet Muenchen

More than hundred years ago [108 years ago, to be exact], the Udi pope
Semjon Bezhanov (assisted by his brother Mikhail Bezhanov) undertook
the Sisyphean task to translate the most relevant parts of the New
Testament, namely the four Gospels, into Udi. Udi represents a both
typologically and genetically speaking highly divergent autochthonous
Southeast Caucasian (Lezgian) language that is characterized by e.g.
massive split structures in its (in parts ergative) relational
behavior (S-splits, A-splits, O-split), an 'accusative' personal
agreement pattern which is co-paradigmatized with focal strategies,
floating agreement clitics, complexe verbal incorporation mechanisms,
clausal subordination that goes along with integrating techniques such
as converbs and participle Till 1989, Udi has been sppoken in three
villages [Nidzh and Vartashen] in Northern Azerbaidzhan and (since
1922) in Oktomberi (Eastern Georgia) [by roughly 5000 people]. It is
not known why the translators produced the Udi Gospels - we can only
speculate that their major objectives were to have at hands a version
of the Gospels that Semjon Bezhanov could use during his religious
services. The Udi people [Armenian and Georgian Christians by
religion] were by that times (in parts) familiar with some kind of
local Armenian, but this rudimentary knowledge did not allow the use
of the Armenian version of the Gospels in religious ceremonies
etc. [the same holds for any Georgian version]. Additionally, the
Bezhanovs were perhaps motivated by [by that time] current
ethnocentric, not to say nationalistic intellectual paradigms. The
long-standing quarrels with the surrounding Islamic cultural
traditions and Islamic rulership obviously helped to develop some kind
of Udi 'national consciousness' which again was 'supported' by both
the Czarist administration and the religious centers in Tbilisi and
Erevan. Another motivation seems to stem from an obvious
'religious-intellectual' tradition especially in Vartashen: Since
probably 1800, young Udis had been regularly trained in Tbilisi and
Erevan to become (local) teachers or priests [popes]. This tradition
was handed over from generation to generation, as can be seen from the
Bezhanov family which knew a number of teachers and priests already
prior to the authors of the Udi Gospels. The Bezhanov manuscript of
the Udi Gospels - which itself seems to be lost - came to the
printhouse in Tbilisi in 1898 and was published as volume XXX of the
famous series Sbornik Materialov dlja Opisanija Mestnostej i Plemen
Kavkaza (SMOMPK) in 1902. Yet, the existence of the Udi Gospels as a
tool for the religious service in Vartashen and Nidzh had never been
acknowledged among the Udis. Also, the linguistic treatment of Udi
rarely made reference to this book [except for local researchers such
as Vladimir Panchvidze and Evgeni Dzheiranishvili]. This may have been
due to the fact that the Udi Gospels circulated among scientists in a
very small number of copies only. Thanks to photocopying facilities,
this aspect can be neglected today. However, it is rather amazing
that those [Western] researchers who have dealt with the linguistics
of Udi hardly ever used the Gospels as a source for their analyses.The
need for larger text corpora of unwritten languages becomes obvious if
we look at the younger linguistic tradition of grammatical
'in-depth-studies'. It has come clear that generalizations on
linguistic categories taken from secondary sources are not very
reliable. Take as an example the standard claim that Udi is an
ergative language (whatever this in fact means): this claim which is
exploited in both areal linguistics and language typology, however,
becomes more than doubtful if we have a closer look at the language.
These doubts emerge not only from more general hypotheses related to
Relational and/or Cognitive Typology, but also from the architecture
of the Udi grammar together with its functional dimensions. If we have
a closer look at the grammar of Udi based on extensive work with
texts, the picture of Udi as e.g. an 'ergative language' changes
dramatically. But this picture shows up only if we use texts as the
starting point of our linguistic analysis, not simply second-hand
traded illustrative phrases or paradigms. The present reediting of
the Udi Gospels aims at researchers who want to get into the
linguistics of Udi [whatever their aims may be] using a larger [and
structurally speaking consistent] text corpus. Additionally, the text
can serve as a tool for those who are interested in the comparative
linguistics of the Southeast Caucasian or Lezgian languages especially
with respect to the lexicon. The Gospels cover nearly 1800 lexical
entries which document a major part of the Udi lexicon (though
necessarily defined and confined by the contents of the Gospels). It
can likewisse provide typological research with massive data from a
typologically salient language. In order to serve its purposes, the
present book is organized in the following way: Chapter 2 is an
introduction into both the historical setting that underlies the
production of the text and a (rather brief) survey of the structure of
the Udi gospels. Section 3 gives the text of the Gospels with
grammatical, lexical, and stylistic notes in reference to the textual
sources. In section 4, the reader will find a comprehensive (though
rather condensed) overview of the grammatical (paradigmatic)
architecture of Udi that helps the reader to analyze all grammatical
elements in the text. Section 5 offers an index of all lexical forms
to be found in the Gospels (names etc. excluded) that can be used both
as a simple Udi-English index and as an etymological index of the Udi
language. This index is unique in that for the first time the lexicon
of an individual East Caucasian language is approached from a
diachronic perspective. It can be regarded as a preliminary step
towardsan etymological dictionary of Udi (which would - as far as data
areavailable - comprise twice the size of the present index). Section
6 contains a lemmatized concordance which helps the reader to retrieve
the lemma of a given form in the Gospels or to check a given word form
in terms a 'keyword in context concordance'. Finally, an English-Udi
indexis given in section 7.

The etymological index can be used without any reference to the
text. If the reader starts with the text, (s)he is advised to first
look up a given word form in the concordance to see its lemma form and
than to check the lemma in the etymological index. The morphological
analysis should be done with the help of the paradigms listed in
section 4 - which- I have to stress it - do not replace the reference
to standard grammatical treatments of Udi such as Schiefner 1863, Dirr
1904, Panchvidze1971, Dzheiranishvili 1974, Gukasjan 1974, Schulze
1982, Schulze(-Fuerhoff)1994, and Schulze 2001a.


Foreword v
Abbreviations vii
Contents ix
1. Introduction 1
2. Udi and the Udi Gospels 3
2.1 Introduction 3
2.2 The Udi language: areal and historical aspects 3
2.3 The historical background of Udi linguistics 9
2.4 Some remarks on the linguistics of the Gospels 13
2.5 Concluding remarks 28
3. The Udi Gospels 31
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Mat'feiaxo ive'l daft'ar 35
3.3 Mark'nuxo ive'l daft'ar 89
3.4 Luk'inaxo ive'l daft'ar 125
3.5 Ioannaxo ive'l daft'at 185
4. The paradigmatic structure of Udi 233
5. Etymological Index 243
5.1 Introduction 243
5.2 Index 245
6. Lemmatized Concordance 339
6.1 Introduction 339
6.2 Concordance 341
7. English-Udi Index 439
8. References 457

ISBN 3 89586 246 0. 
Languages of the World/Text Library 05. 
Ca. 450 pp. USD 78 / DM 148 / � 52.

New: A Students' and course discount of 40% is offered to the above title. 

Ordering information for individuals: Please give us your creditcard
no. / expiry date. Prices in this information include shipment
worldwide by airmail. A standing order for this series is available
with special discounts offered to individual subscribers.

Free copies of LINCOM'S newsflashes 24 & 25 are now available from

LINCOM EUROPA, Freibadstr. 3, D-81543 Muenchen, Germany;
FAX +49 89 62269404;
Mail to author|Respond to list|Read more issues|LINGUIST home page|Top of issue


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