LINGUIST List 12.2304

Wed Sep 19 2001

Sum: Phonetic Differences/Male & Female Speech

Editor for this issue: Karen Milligan <>


  1. Henry Rogers, male-female bibliography

Message 1: male-female bibliography

Date: Tue, 18 Sep 2001 15:48:49 -0400
From: Henry Rogers <>
Subject: male-female bibliography

Re: Linguist 12.2276

This is a posting of the bibliographic items that I have received on the
subject of male-female phonetic differences.

Many thanks to those who replied: Doug Whalen, Jamil Daher, Baider
Fabienne, Robert Hagiwara, Laura L. Koenig, Nadia Brunetti, Anne Cutler,
David Deterding, Daniel Loehr, Matthew Gordon.

Hank Rogers


 Male-Female Phonetic Bibliography

Atkinson, M. 1984. Our Masters' voices; The Language and Body Language
of Politics. London: Methuen

Bladon, R. A. W., Henton, C. G., & Pickering, J. B. 1984. Towards an
auditory theory of speech normalization. Language and Communication,
4(1), 59-69.

Brend, R.M. 1975. "Male-female intonation patterns in American
English." In B. Thorne and N. Henly, etc. Language and Sex: Difference
and Dominance. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. pp. 84-87

Brown, W. S., jr. and S.H. Feinstein. 1977. 'Speaker sex identification
utilizing a constant laryngeal source'. Folia phoniatrica 29.240-8.

Byrd, D. 1994. Relations of sex and dialect to reduction. Speech
Communication, 15(1), 39-54.

Carleton, M. & Ohala, J.J. 1980. "The effect of pitch of voice on
perceived personality traits". Meeting of Kroeber Anthropological
Society, Berkeley: University of California.

Chambers, J. K. 1992. Linguistic correlates of gender and sex. English
World-Wide, 13(2), 173-218.

Childers, D.G. and K. Wu. 1991. Gender recogniton from speech: Part II.
Fine analysis' JASA 90.1841-56.

Coleman, Ralph O. 1971. 'Male and female voice quality and its
relationship to vowel formant frequencies'. JSHR 14.565-77.

Coleman, Ralph O. 1973. 'Speaker identification in the absence of
inter-subject differences in glottal source charactersistics'. JASA

Coleman, Ralph O. 1976. 'A comparison of the contributions of two voice
quality characteristics to the perception of maleness and femaleness in
the voice'. JSHR 19.168-80.

Deterding D 1990. Speaker Normalisation for Automatic Speech
Recognition. Unpublished PhD thesis, Cambridge University.

Deterding, D. 1997 The Formants of Monophthong Vowels in Standard
Southern British English Pronunciation. Journal of the International
Phonetic Association, 27, 47-55.

Eckert, P. 1989. The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in
variation. Language Variation and Change, 1, 245-267.

Ecklund, Ingegerd and Hartmut Traunm�ller. 1997. 'Comparative study of
male and female whispered and phonated versions of the long vowels of
Swedish'. Phonetica 54.1-21.

Gibb, G. D. 1869. "The character of the voice in the nations of Asia and
Africa contrasted with that of the nations of Europe". Journal of the
Anthropological Society, april: 244-59.

Gordon, Matthew and Jeffrey Heath. 1998. 'Sex, Sound Symbolism, and
Sociolinguistics' Current Anthropology_ 39.4: 421-49.

Graddol, D. & Swann, J 2d ed, 1991. The Voice of Authority. Oxford:
Basil Blackwell.

Graddol, D. & Swann, J. 1983. "Speaking in fundamental frequency: some
social and physical correlates". Language and Speech, 26:351-66.

Graddol, D. & Swann, J. 1991. Gender Voices. "The Voice of Authority"
and "Accents of feminity". Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Graddol, D. J. 1983. "Three experiments in the perception of speaking
fundamental frequency". Paper given to the Institute of Accoustics
Speech Group, Nottingham printed in Gender Voices.

Graddol, D. J. 1986. "Discourse specific pitch behavior" in John-Lewis,
C. (ed.). Intonation in Discourse, London: Croom Helm.

Hagiwara, R. 1994. Three types of American /r/. UCLA Working Papers in
Phonetics, 88, 55-61.

Hagiwara, R. 1995. Acoustic realizations of American /r/ as produced by
women and men. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 90.

Hagiwara, R. 1997. Dialect variation and formant frequency: the American
English vowels revisited. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,
102(1), 655-658.

Henton, C. 'Cross-language variation in the vowels of female and male
speakers'. Proc. 13 ICPhS, vol 4.420-3. Stockholm.

Henton, C. 1983. Changes in the vowels of received pronunciation.
Journal of Phonetics, 11, 353-371.

Henton, C. 1985. A Comparative Study of Phonetic Sex-specific
Differences across Languages. Dphil thesis. Oxford University

Henton, C. 1987. Phonetic considerations for th synthesis of female
voices. Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Phonetics
Sciences, 270-273.

Henton, C. 1988, November-December. Vocal discord. UC Davis Magazine,

Henton, C. 1989. "Fact and fiction in the description of female and
male pitch". Language and Communication 9:299-311

Henton, C. 1990. One vowel's life (and death?) across languages: the
moribundity and prestige of /(turned-v)/. Journal of Phonetics, 18,

Henton, C. 1992. The abnormality of male speech. In G. Wolf (Ed.), New
Departures in Linguistics. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Henton, C. 1995. "Pitch Dynamism in Male and Female Speech". Language
and Communication 15:43-61

Henton, C. G., & Bladon, R. A. W. 1985. Breathiness in normal female
speech: inefficiency versus desirability. Language and Communication,

Henton, C., & Bladon, A. 1988. Creak as a sociophonetic marker. In L. M.
Hyman & C. N. Li (Eds.), Language, Speech and Mind: Studies in honour of

Hillenbrand, J. M., Getty, L. A., Clark, M., J., & Wheeler, K.
1995.Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America, 97(5), 3099-3111.

Hinton, L., Moonwomon, B., Bremner, S., Luthin, H., Van Clay, M.,
Lerner,J., & Corcoran, H. 1987. It's not just the Valley Girls: a study
of California English. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of
the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 117-128.

Holmberg, E.B., R.E. Hillman, and J.J. Perkell 1988. 'Glottal airflow
and transglottal air pressure measurements for male and female
speakers.' JASA 84.511-29.

Ingenmann, F. 1968. Identification of the speaker's sex from voiceless
fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 44(4),

Johansson, I. 1983. "Sex-related and sex-directed features in questions
of adults to six-year-old children". From sounds to words. Umea:
Humanisthusets reprocentral.

Johnson, K. 1990. The role of perceived speaker identity in F0
normalization of vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America,88(2), 642-654.

Johnson, K., Ladefoged, P., & Lindau, M. 1993. Individual differences
invowel production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,

Karlsson, I. 1991 Female voices in speech synthesis. Journal of
Phonetics19(1), 111-120/

Klatt, D. H., & Klatt, L. C. 1990. Analysis, synthesis, and perception
of voice quality variations among female and male talkers. Journal of
the Acoustical Society of America, 87, 820-857.

Koenig, L. L. 2000. Laryngeal factors in voiceless consonant production
in men, women, and 5-year-olds. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Research, 43, 1211-1228.

Ladefoged, P. and D. Broadbent. 1957. 'Information conveyed by vowels.'
JASA 29.98-104.

Lakoff, Robin. 1975. Language and Woman's place. New-York, Harper and

Laver J, and P. Trudgill. 1979. "Phonetic and Linguistic Markers in
Speech" in Scherer, K.R. & Giles H. (eds). Social Markers in Speech.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laver, J. 1980. The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

L�on P. 1980. "BB ou la voix 'charmeuse', 'petite fille'et 'coquette'.
Problemes de prosodie. vol 2: experimentations, modeles et fonctions.
Studia phonetica.

Linke, C.E. 1973. 'A study of pitch characteristics of female voices and
their relationship to vocal effectiveness.' Folia phoniat. 25.173-85.

Loveday, L. 1981. "Pitch, politeness and sexual role: an explotary
investigation". Language and Speech, 24:71-88

Majewski, W. & al. 1972. "Speaking Fundamental Frequencies of Polish
Adult Males". Phonetica, 225:119-25.

McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 1978. 'Intonation in a man's world'. Signs. 3,
541-59. Reprinted in Thorne, Kramerae, and Henley (eds.) Language,
Gender, and Society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. pp. 69-88

Moonwomon, B. 1991 Sound change in San Francisco English
(CaliforniaEnglish. UC Berkeley Ph.D. Dissertation.

Mora, Elsa. 1989. "Phonostylistique de l'intonation differenciations
dues au milieu social et au sexe des locuteurs". Revue Qu�b�coise de
linguistique Appliqu�e.

Nittrouer, S., McGowan, R. S., Milenkovic, P. H., & Beehler, D. 1990.
Acoustic measurements of men's and women's voices: A study of context
effects and covariation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33,

Ohala J.J. 1983. "Cross-language use of pitch: an ethological view".
Phonetica, 40,1-18

Ohala J.J. 1984. "An ethological perspective on common cross-language
utilization of F0 of voice". Phonetica, 41, 1-16.

Philips, Susan U., Susan Steele, & Christine Tanz (eds). 1987 Language
Gender and Sex in Comparative Perspective. London: Cambrige University

Ryalls, John, Allison Zipprer, and Penelope Baldauff. 1997. 'A
preliminary investigation of the effects of gender and race on voice
onset time.' Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 40.642-5.

Sachs, J. 1975. "Cues to the identification of sex in children's
speech". Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Barrie THORNE and
Nancy HENLEY (ed). Massachussets: Newbury House Publisher,152-177.

Schwartz, M.F. 1968. Identification of speaker sex from isolated
voiceless fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
43(5), 1178-1179.

Schwartz, M.F. and H.E. Rine. 1968. 'Identificaiton of speaker sex from
isolated, whispered vowels'. JASA 44.1736-7.

Smith, P. M. 1985. Language, the Sexes and Society. Oxford: Basil

Spender, Dale. 1985 2d ed Man-made Language. London: Routledge and Kegan

Stathopoulos, E. T., & Sapienza, C. 1993. Respiratory and laryngeal
function of women and men during vocal intensity variation. Journal of
Speech and Hearing Research, 36(1), 64-75.

Strand, E. A. 1999. Uncovering the role of gender stereotypes in speech
perception. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18(1), 86-99.

Swartz, Bradford L. 1992. 'Gender differences in voice onset time'.
Perceptual and Motor Skills 75.983-92.

Sweeting, P.M. and R.J. Baken. 1982. 'Voice onset time in a normal-aged
population.' JSHR 25.129-34.

Terango, L. 1966. "Pitch and duration characteristics of the oral
reading of males on a masculinity-feminity dimension". Journal of Speech
and Hearing research, 9, 590-95

Thorne, Barrie, Cheris Kramarae & Nancy Henley.1983. Language, Gender
and Society. Massachussets, Newbury Publishers.

Titze, I. R. 1989. Physiologic and acoustic differences between male and
female voices. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85(4),

Van Bezooijen. R. 1995. 'Sociocultural aspects of pitch differences
between Japanese and Dutch women'. Language and Speech 38.253-65.

Vuorenkoski et al. 1978. "Fundamental voice frequency during normal and
abnormal growth and after androgen treatment". Archives of Disease in
Childhood, 53, 201-9.

Weinberg, B. and S. Bennett. Speaker sex recognition of 5- and 6-year
old chilrens's voices'. JASA 50.1210-3.

Whalen, D. H., and Levitt, A. G. 1995. The universality of intrinsic F0
of vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 23.349-66.

Whiteside, S.P. and J. Marshall. 2001. 'Developmental trands in voice
onset time: Some evidence for sex differences'. Phonetica 58.196-210.

Whiteside, Sandra P. and Caroline J. Irving. 1997. 'Speakers' sex
differences in voice onset time: Some preliminary findings'. Peceptual
and Motor Skills 85.459-63.

Wu, K. and D.G. Childers. 1991. 'Gender recognition from speech: Part I.
Coarse analysis.' JASA 90.1828-40.

Yang, Byunggon. 1990. 'An acoustical study of Korean monophthongs
produced by male and female speakers'. JASA 91.2280-3.

Yang, Byunggon. 1996. 'A comparative study of American English and
Korean vowels produced by male and female speakers'. Journal of
Phonetics 24. 245-61.


Henry Rogers
6072 Robarts Library
Department of Linguistics vox: (416-) 978-1769
University of Toronto fax: (416-) 971-2688
Toronto, Ontario,
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