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Mon Nov 12 2001

Books: Grammar

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  1. LINCOM EUROPA, Grammar: Student Grammar of Basque

Message 1: Grammar: Student Grammar of Basque

Date: Fri, 09 Nov 2001 12:34:14 +0100
From: LINCOM EUROPA <LINCOM.EUROPAt-online.de>
Subject: Grammar: Student Grammar of Basque

A Student Grammar of Euskara
JON D. PATRICK & ILARI ZUBIRI IBARRONDO

This book is a practical handbook of the grammar of the basque
language. It is aimed at the first three years of a University basque
language curriculum. The book is built on the broad topic categories
defined by HABE as important for the first 4 levels of basque language
competence. The authors' experience of attending classes at the
higher levels of 5-12 have been drawn on to determine the remaining
most common language features that a student will be exposed to in the
street, from television programmes, newspapers and radio. Competency
in all the contents of the book would ensure a student was at the
uppermost end of the scale of 2nd language speaker competency.

A unique feature of the text is its explanatory style. Each topic is
discussed and then a series of sentence examples in basque are
presented along with their english translation. In total there are
about 2300 example pairs of sentences in the book. Importantly each
example is used to focus on a particular aspect of the language. To
aid the student special notes are added to English translations to
explain variation in the translation from the literal form.

The book also contains a set of Appendices of the auxiliary verb
pardigms in a clearest format yet published. Also it contains a set of
Appendices of the most common forms of compound and synthetic verbs.

Chapters: 1. PHONETICS - FONETIKA. 2. INTRODUCTION TO MORPHOLOGY -
Morfologiari Sarrera. 3. DECLENSION - DEKLINABIDEA. 4. MORPHOLOGY -
MORFOLOGIA. 5. THE VERB - ADITZA. 6. SYNTAX - SINTAXIS. 7. NOTIONS /
ELEMENTS - NOZIOAK

ISBN 3 89586 444 7. 
LINCOM Student Grammars 01. 
Ca. 400pp. USD 70 / DM 128 / � 44. 
Course discounts available (50% from the 2nd copy on).

Table of Contents:

PREFACE. xvi
INTRODUCTION xviii
OBJECTIVES OF THE BOOK . xviii
STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK xviii
UNIFIED EUSKARA - BATUA AND THE DIALECTS xix
A BRIEF HISTORY OF WRITTEN EUSKARAxx
HOW TO USE THIS GRAMMARxx
OTHER SOURCE MATERIAL ON EUSKARA. xxii

I. PHONETICS - Fonetika 1
1.1 ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION - Ortografia eta Ahoskera.3
1.1.1 THE ALPHABET - Alfabetoa.3
1.1.2 VOWELS AND DIPTHONGS - Bokalak Eta Diptongoak.4
1.1.3 OTHER CONSONANTS - Beste Konsonanteak 4
1.1.4 THE PRONUNCIATION OF "G" - � G �Ren Hotsaren Ahoskera 4
1.1.5 THE PRONUNCIATION OF "J" - � J �Ren Hotsaren Ahoskera4
1.1.6 THE PRONUNCIATION OF "S", "Z", AND "X" - � S �, � Z �,
Eta � X �Ren Hotsen Ahoskera 5
1.1.7 PRONUNCIATION OF "R" - � R �Ren Hotsaren Ahoskera .5
1.1.8 PALATAL CONSONANTS - Kontsonante Sabaikariak6
1.1.9 USE OF THE LETTER "H"- � H � Letraren Erabilera.6
1.1.10 THE PARTICLE "EZ" - �Ez � Partikula 10
1.1.11 BORROWED WORDS - Maileguak.11
1.1.12 PHONETICS - Fonetika 12
1.2 WORD ACCENT - Azentua .13
1.2.1 GENERAL RULES - Arau Orokorrak 13
1.2.2 THE PLURAL - Plurala 14
1.2.3 VERBS - Aditzak.14
1.2.4 STRESSED WORDS - Hitz Markatuak15

II. INTRODUCTION TO MORPHOLOGY
- Morfologiari Sarrera . 17
2.1 WORDS of EUSKARA - Hitz-motak Euskaraz19
2.2 NOUNS - Izenak.19
2.3 ADJECTIVES - Adjektiboak21
2.3.1 Participles - Partizipioak 21
2.4 PERSONAL PRONOUNS - Pertsona Izenordainak 22
v
2.5 THE ARTICLE - Artikulua23
2.5.1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE - Artikulu Zehaztua 23
2.5.2 INDEFINITE ARTICLE - Artikulu Zehaztugabea .24
2.6 DEMONSTRATIVES - Erakusleak.26
2.7 SIMPLE SENTENCES - Esaldiak .28
2.7.1 FOCUS - Galdegaia .28
2.7.2 TOPIC29
2.8 ADVERBS - Adberbioak.30
2.9 NUMERALS - Zenbakiak .31
2.9.1 CARDINALS - Kardinalak .31
2.9.2 ORDINALS - Ordinalak32
2.10 INDEFINITE DETERMINANTS - Mugatzaile Zehaztugabeak.33
2.11 INTERROGATIVES - Galdetzaileak 35

III. DECLENSION - Deklinabidea . 37
3.1 INTRODUCTION - Sarrera .39
3.1.1 DECLENSION CASES - Deklinabide Kasuak .39
3.1.2 WORD ORDER - Hitzen Ordena40
3.1.3 NUMBER - Numeroa 40
3.1.4 THE INDEFINITE CASE - Mugagabea .41
3.1.4.1 PROPER NOUNS - Izen Bereziak .41
3.1.5 INTERROGATIVES: WHAT, WHICH, HOW MANY, HOW MUCH
- Galdetzaileak: ZER, ZEIN, ZENBAT.42
3.1.5.1 NUMBERS - Zenbakiak .42
3.1.5.2 SOME INDEFINITE EXPRESSIONS - Zenbait Esapide
Mugagabe.43
3.1.5.3 SPECIAL CASES - Kasu Bereziak 43
3.1.6 CLOSE PROXIMITY - Plural Hurbila .44
3.1.7 ANIMATES / INANIMATES - Bizidunak/Bizigabeak45
3.1.8 MORPHOLOGY OF COMPOSITION - Hitz Elkarketa 46
3.1.8.1 -AU dipthong - AU diptongoa 46
3.1.8.2 Words ending in -R .47
3.1.9 WORDS ENDING IN "-A" - <<A>>Z Amaitutako Hitzak .47
3.1.9.1 ORGANIC -A .48
3.1.9.2 BORROWINGS48
3.1.9.3 SUFFIXES - Atzizkiak .49
3.1.9.4 PROPER NOUNS.49
3.2 DECLENSION CASES - Deklinebide Kasuak .50
3.2.1 NOR (ABSOLUTIBOA) - WHO (ABSOLUTIVE) .51
3.2.2 PARTITIVE - PARTITIBOA53
3.2.2.1 Negative Sentences - Ezezko Perpausak.53
3.2.2.2 Interrogative Sentences - Galde Perpausak.54
vi
3.2.2.3 Other cases - Beste Kasuak .54
3.2.2.4 Partitive is not NOR54
3.2.3 NORK (Ergatiboa) - WHO (Ergative).56
3.2.4 NORI (DATIBOA) - TO WHOM, FOR WHOM, FROM WHOM
(DATIVE)58
3.2.5 NOREN - WHOSE (Possessive-Genitive) 60
3.2.6 NORENTZAT - FOR WHOM (Benefactive) .64
3.2.7 NOREKIN -WITH WHO(M) (Comitative) 66
3.2.8 ZERTAZ/ZEREZ - ABOUT WHAT, BY MEANS OF WHAT
(Instrumental).68
3.2.9 WHERE (Inessive) - NON .72
3.2.10 NONDIK - FROM WHERE, THROUGH WHERE, SINCE WHEN
(Ablative) .74
3.2.11 NORA - TO WHERE (Allative)76
3.2.12 NORANTZ - TOWARDS (Directional)78
3.2.13 NORAINO - UP TO WHERE, AS FAR AS WHERE (Terminative)80
3.2.14 NONGO - OF WHERE, FROM WHERE (Locative-Genitive) 82
3.2.14.1 NONGO/NONDIK .84
3.2.14.2 NONGO/NOREN .84
3.2.14.3 USING -KO AND NOT USING -KO 85
3.2.15 NORAKO - FOR WHERE, FOR WHAT PURPOSE (Destinative).86
3.2.16 NORENGAN - WHERE (for animates - bizidunentzat)
(Inessive/Locative).88
3.2.17 NORENGANDIK - FROM WHOM(for animates - bizidunentzat)
(Ablative) .90
3.2.18 NORENGANA - TO WHOM (for animates - bizidunentzat)
(Allative) 92
3.2.19 NORENGANANTZ - TOWARDS WHOM
(for animates - bizidunentzat) (Directional) 94
3.2.20 NORENGANAINO - UP TO WHOM
(for animates - bizidunentzat) (Terminative).96
3.2.21 NORENGATIK - FOR WHOM (Causal) .97
3.2.22 NORTZAT - AS (SOMETHING ELSE), FOR (SOMETHING
ELSE), TO BE (SOMETHING ELSE), AS BEING
(SOMETHING ELSE) (Essive/Translative) .100
3.3 SUMMARY - Laburpena102

IV. MORPHOLOGY - Morfologia . 105
4.1 HOW/ WHAT IT'S LIKE - NOLA/NOLAKO(A/AK) 107
4.1.1 HOW - NOLA (ZELAN).107
4.1.1.1 ADVERBS - Adberbioak107
4.1.1.2 PARTICIPLES - Partizipioak .108
4.1.1.3 ADJECTIVES - Adjektiboak110
4.1.1.4 OTHER FORMS - Beste Formak .111
4.1.2 HOW, WHAT SORT OF - NOLAKO (ZELAKO).111
4.1.3 NOLA is not NOLAKO.112
4.1.4 HOW IS IT?/ WHAT IS IT LIKE? - ZER MODUZ? /
ZER MODUZKO (A/AK)? .114
vii
4.2 INTENSIFIERS - OSO, NAHIKO, SAMAR. .116
4.2.1 NAHIKO (ASKI) - QUITE, ENOUGH, SUFFICIENTLY,
RATHER, FAIRLY.116
4.2.2 SAMAR - SOMEWHAT, QUITE, A LITTLE, RATHER .117
4.2.3 DEXENTE (SANO) - QUITE, ENOUGH 118
4.2.4 OSO, BIZIKI - VERY .119
4.2.5 IZUGARRI (IKARAGARRI, ITZEL) - TREMENDOUS,
EXTREMELY .119
4.2.6 ERABAT, ARRAS, ARRUNT, TXIT; BATERE - COMPLETELY;
ABSOLUTELY, NOT AT ALL120
4.2.7 GUZTIZ (ZEHARO), ARRUNT - COMPLETELY, TOTALLY,
ENTIRELY120
4.2.8 TXIKI - TXIKIA - Repetition & Emphasis - Very, Very Small .121
4.2.9 alfer HUTSA - TOTALLY, UTTERLY, NOTHING BUT
(he's nothing) .122
4.3 ONE; SOME - BAT; BATZUK 124
4.3.1 BAT - A, AN .124
4.3.2 BATZUK -SOME, SEVERAL, A FEW .125
4.3.3 -(R)EN BAT , -(R)EN BATZUK -ANY, SOME 126
4.4 OTHER / ANOTHER - BESTEA / BESTE BAT127
4.5 POSTPOSITIONS - Posposizioak 129
4.5.1 GABE (BARIK) - WITHOUT, LESS, UN- 130
4.5.2 GAINEAN; AZPIAN - ON, ON TOP OF, ABOUT; UNDER,
UNDERNEATH130
4.5.3 AURREAN; ATZEAN, OSTEAN - IN FRONT OF; BEHIND,
BACK 132
4.5.4 ONDOAN (ALBOAN, ALDAMENEAN) - NEXT TO, BESIDE .132
4.5.5 BARRUAN, BARNEAN; KANPOAN, AT - INSIDE; OUTSIDE,
OUT OF .133
4.5.6 ARTEAN - IN BETWEEN, AMONG 134
4.5.7 ZEREN ALDE, -ALDE; KONTRA, AURKA - WHAT SIDE,
IN FAVOUR OF; AGAINST, IN FRONT OF135
4.5.8 ZEREN BIDEZ (BITARTEZ) - THROUGH, BY WAY OF136
4.5.9 ZEREN ZAIN - WAIT FOR, WAITING FOR .136
4.5.10 ZEREN BILA - SEARCH FOR, LOOK FOR, SEEK, LOOKING
FOR136
4.5.11 ZEREN ARABERA - ACCORDING TO, DEPENDING ON .137
4.5.12 NON ZEHAR - ACROSS, BY, BESIDE, OVER, THROUGH,
THROUGHOUT, VIA, DURING.137
4.5.13 ZERI BURUZ - WHAT ABOUT ., ON 138
4.5.14 ZERI ESKER - THANKS TO .139
4.5.15 NOREN KONTURA (aldetik, kasa, kabuz) - ON OWN ACCOUNT,
UP TO ME, ON OWN ACCORD, BY OWN MEANS139
4.5.16 NOREN ESKU - IN THE HANDS OF, IN WHOM, IN THE
CARE OF.140
4.5.17 NOREN INGURUAN - AROUND, NEARBY, SURROUND 140
4.5.18 NOREN MENPEAN - UNDER THE COMMAND OF,
DOMINATION .141
4.5.19 ZEREN TRUKE - INSTEAD OF, FOR141
4.5.20 NON GORA; NON BEHERA - UP; DOWN142
viii
4.6 USES OF ERE - ERE-ren Erabilera144
4.6.1 ERE - ALSO 144
4.6.2 ERE BAI / ERE EZ; BAITA. ERE / EZTA.ERE - TOO, AS WELL.145
4.6.3 BAITA / EZTA - AS WELL, NEITHER 145
4.6.4 OTHER USES OF ERE.146
4.7 SOMEONE; SOMEBODY; WHOEVER - INOR; NORBAIT;
EDONOR.148
4.7.1 INOR; INOR EZ - SOMEONE; NO-ONE148
4.7.1.1 INONGO, INOLAKO - NO, NONE OF 149
4.7.2 NORBAIT (NOR EDO NOR) - SOMEBODY, SOMEONE149
4.7.3 EDONOR (NORNAHI, NORGURA) - ANYONE.152
4.8 COUNTABLE NOUNS, MEASURABLE NOUNS - ASKO is not
HANDIA155
4.9 INTENSIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS - Pertsona-Izenordain
Indartuak.159
4.9.1 I MYSELF - NI / NEU 159
4.9.2 MINE, MY OWN - NIRE / NEURE .160
4.9.3 HER'S, HIS, ITS - HAREN / BERE / BERAREN .161
4.9.4 VARIOUS OTHER USES - Beste Zenbait Erabilera .162
4.9.4.1 I PERSONALLY - NIK NEUK162
4.9.4.2 ALSO, NOT EVEN I - NEUK ERE .162
4.9.4.3 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 163
4.9.5 RECIPROCAL PRONOUN - ELKAR163
4.10 AFFIXES - Atzizkiak.165
4.10.1 SUFFIXES .165
4.10.1.1 DIMINUTIVES.165
4.10.1.2 NOUN AND ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES165
4.10.1.3 VERB SUFFIXES.166
4.10.1.4 ADVERB SUFFIXES.167
4.10.2 PREFIXES .167
4.10.3 PSUEDO SUFFIXES 168
4.11 COMPOUND WORDS - Hitz Elkartuak 169
4.11.1 FIRST ELEMENTS.169
4.11.1.1 VOWELS 169
4.11.1.2 CONSONANTS170
4.11.2 SECOND ELEMENTS171
4.11.3 COMPOUNDS with NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.171
4.11.4 COMPOUNDS WITH VERBS.172

V. THE VERB - Aditza 173
5.1 THE VERB OF EUSKARA - Euskal Aditza.175
5.1.1 PERIPHRASTIC VERBS - Adizki Perifrastikoak176
5.1.2 SYNTHETIC VERBS - Adizki Trinkoak .176
ix
5.2 ASPECT - Aspektua 177
5.2.1 ETORRI - IMPERATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE, POTENTIAL.177
5.2.2 ETORRI - NEAR PAST 177
5.2.3 ETORTZEN - HABITUAL .178
5.2.4 ETORRIKO - FUTURE 179
5.2.5 ETORRIA - PERFECT180
5.3 THE AUXILIARY VERB - Aditz Laguntzailea .182
5.3.1 PERSON - Pertsona .182
5.3.2 THE IMPERSONAL - Inpertsonala .185
5.3.3 NUMBER/AMOUNT - Numeroa .186
5.3.3.1 Asko DAGO / asko DAUDE 186
5.3.3.2 ETA - AND .186
5.3.3.3 BALIO IZAN 186
5.3.3.4 JAN, GOSALDU, BAZKALDU, AFALDU 187
5.3.3.5 PARE BAT187
5.3.4 TENSE - Aldia.187
5.3.5 MODE - Modua .188
5.4 INDICATIVE - Indikatiboa189
5.4.1 INDICATIVE : PRESENT - Indikitibozko Orainaldia .191
5.4.1.1 NOR (izan) 192
5.4.1.2 NOR-NORI (izan).192
5.4.1.3 NOR-NORK (ukan) 194
5.4.1.4 NOR-NORI-NORK (ukan) .195
5.4.2 INDICATIVE: PAST - Indikatibozko Lehenaldia 197
5.4.2.1 NOR (izan) 199
5.4.2.2 NOR-NORI (izan).199
5.4.2.3 NOR-NORK (ukan) 200
5.4.2.4 NOR-NORI-NORK (ukan) .201
5.5 POTENTIAL - Ahalera .203
5.6 IMPERATIVE - Agintera .207
5.6.1 THE PARTICIPLE - ETORRI 207
5.6.2 PERIPHRASTIC FORM - ETOR ZAITEZ 208
5.6.3 SYNTHETIC FORM - ZATOZ 208
5.6.4 OTHER WAYS TO EXPRESS THE IMPERATIVE.209
5.7 SYNTHETIC VERBS - Adizki Trinkoak212
5.7.1 PRESENT TENSE - Orainaldia 212
5.7.2 PAST TENSE - Lehenaldia .214
5.8 COMPOUND VERBS - Aditz Lokuzioak .216
5.8.1 USE OF ACCOMPANYING VERBS WITH COMPOUND VERBS.218
5.8.1.1 THE ORDER - Ordena .218
5.8.1.2 THE AUXILIARY VERB - Aditz Laguntzailea 219
5.8.1.3 THE ASPECT - Aspektua.220

5.9 VARIOUS PROBLEMATIC VERBS - Zenbait Aditz Problematiko 224
5.9.1 NOR/NORK.224
5.9.2 EGON / IZAN / ARI IZAN .225
5.9.3 SPECIAL VERBS - Aditz Bereziak227
5.9.3.1 Lagundu - Help, Accompany 227
5.9.3.2 Utzi - Leave, Let, Stop 227
5.9.3.3 Ulertu - Understand, Comprehend 228
5.9.3.4 Deitu - Call 228
5.9.3.5 Hasi, hasi nahi, hasi nahian - Begin/start 228
5.9.3.6 Pasa, kosta, falta izan, laga - Pass time, Cost, Lack, Leave 229
5.9.3.7 Gogoratu / Ahaztu - Remember / Forget.230
5.9.3.8 Baliatu, jabetu, konturatu, aldatu, arduratu, kezkatu.231
5.9.3.9 Behar, Beharra - Must, Should, Need to .231
5.9.3.10 Uste, pensatu - Believe, think .232
5.9.3.11 Ezin - Cannot, Can't232
5.9.3.12 Ohi - in the custom of232
5.9.3.13 Erazi, -arazi, -erazo, -arazo - to be made to 233
5.9.3.14 Iraun, irakin, ihardun/jardun - remain, boil, be occupied in
.233
5.9.3.15 Other Verbs - iritzi/eritzi, ekin, eutsi, jarraitu, itxaron,
begiratu,
gustatu/laket .233
5.9.4 Particles OTE and OMEN (EI)235
5.9.4.1 Ote - I wonder, if by any chance .235
5.9.4.2 Omen - They say, Apparently .236
5.10 NOMINALISATION - Nominalizazioa .238
5.10.1 ZER?: -T(Z)EA - WHAT 239
5.10.2 ZERTAN?: -T(Z)EN - IN DOING WHAT? 241
5.10.3 ZERTARA?: -T(Z)ERA - TO WHAT (OUTCOME)? .243
5.10.4 ZERTARAKO?: -T(Z)EKO - FOR WHAT (PURPOSE)? .244
5.10.5 VERBS THAT DON'T ACCEPT NOMINALIZATIONS.244
5.10.6 PROBLEM CASES .245
5.10.7 NOMINALISATION AND RELATIVE CLAUSES246

VI. SYNTAX - Sintaxis . 251
6.1 THE SIMPLE CLAUSE - Perpaus Bakuna 253
6.1.1 INTERROGATIVES - Galdezkoak.253
6.1.2 AFFIRMATIVES - Baiezkoak 254
6.1.3 NEGATIVES - Ezezkoak 254
6.1.4 EXCLAMATIONS - Harridurazkoak .255
6.1.4.1 HAU da HAU! - USING DEMONSTRATIVES.255
6.1.4.2 BAI.-LA! 256
6.1.4.3 ZEIN.-N! 256
6.1.4.4 A ZER NOLAKO.-N! (ZELAKO.-N!) - WHAT A. ! .256
6.1.4.5 ZE. -N! - HOW! WHAT!.257
6.1.4.6 ZENBAT .-N! - HOW MUCH, HOW LITTLE, HOW MANY257
6.1.4.7 Handia da GERO! - . Be careful 257
6.1.4.8 AlferrA HALAKOA! - SIMILAR, LIKE THAT, THAT
KIND OF THING 258
6.1.4.9 BAIETZ! / EZETZ!258
6.1.4.10 ESKERRAK .-N - Just as well / thank goodness.258
6.1.4.11 Interjections259
6.2 WORD ORDER - Hitz Ordena.261
6.2.1 INTERROGATIVE - Galdezkoak.262
6.2.1.1 PARTIAL INTERROGATIVES 262
6.2.1.2 GENERAL INTERROGATIVES.262
6.2.2 AFFIRMATIVE - Baiezkoak 262
6.2.2.1 THE INQUIRED ELEMENT - Galdegaia .263
6.2.2.2 THE PROPER AFFIRMATION.263
6.2.2.3 THE VERB - Aditza .264
6.2.3 NEGATIVES - Negitiboak265
6.3 COORDINATION - Koordinazioa.271
6.3.1 CONJUNCTION - Elkarritzak 271
6.3.1.1 ETA - AND .271
6.3.1.2 ERE, ERE BA, ERE EZ - ALSO, EITHER, AS WELL .272
6.3.1.3 BAITA.ERE - AND.ALSO/SO, EVEN272
6.3.1.4 EZTA.ERE - NOT.ALSO, EVEN, NEITHER .272
6.3.2 ADVERSE - Aurkariak .272
6.3.2.1 BAINA - BUT.272
6.3.2.2 ORDEA, OSTERA, ALDIZ, BERRIZ - ON THE OTHER
HAND, HOWEVER 273
6.3.2.3 BAIZIK, BAIZIK ETA - RATHER, BUT, IF NOT.273
6.3.2.4 HALA ERE - EVEN SO .274
6.3.2.5 HALA ETA GUZTIZ ERE - IN SPITE OF ALL., EVEN SO .274
6.3.2.6 DENA DELA (DENA DEN) - ANYWAY, AS IT IS, EVEN SO .274
6.3.2.7 BARIK - INSTEAD OF, IN PLACE OF275
6.3.3 DISJUNCTIVE - Hautakariak .275
6.3.3.1 EDO - OR (NON-EXCLUDING).275
6.3.3.2 EDO.EDO - EITHER . OR .276
6.3.3.3 ALA - OR (EXCLUDING).276
6.3.4 DISTRIBUTIVE - Distributiboak .277
6.3.4.1 BAI.BAI. - AS WELL AS. , BOTH . AND277
6.3.4.2 EZ.EZ. - NEITHER. NOR. .277
6.3.4.3 HALA.NOLA. - BOTH. AS WELL AS. 277
6.3.4.4 BATA.BESTEA. - THE ONE. THE OTHER 277
6.3.4.5 (ALDE) BATETIK.BESTETIK. - ON ONE SIDE.
FROM THE OTHER. 278
6.3.5 ELATIVE - Ilatiboak .278
6.3.5.1 BERAZ (HORTAZ) - SO .278
6.3.5.2 ORDUAN - SO .278
6.3.5.3 HORREGATIK - THAT IS WHY, FOR THAT 279
6.4 SUBORDINATION - Menperakuntza.280
6.4.1 COMPLETIVE CLAUSE- Konpletiboko Perpausak280
6.4.1.1 -LA / -NIK - THAT.280
6.4.1.2 -NA282
6.4.1.3 -T(Z)EKO283
6.4.1.4 BAIETZ / EZETZ .284
6.4.2 INDIRECT INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE - Zehar Galderako
Perpausa .285
6.4.3 DESTINATIVE CLAUSES - Helburuzko Perpausak.288
6.4.3.1 ZERTARA? -T(Z)ERA - FOR WHAT INTENTION, TO GO
TO DO SOMETHING .288
6.4.3.2 ZERTARAKO?:-T(Z)EKO - FOR WHAT
PURPOSE/OUTCOME .289
6.4.3.3 -T(Z)EARREN - SO AS TO .290
6.4.3.4 -T(Z)EKOTAN, -T(Z)EKO ASMOTAN - THINKING
ABOUT DOING SOMETHING290
6.4.4 CAUSAL SENTENCES - Kausazko Perpausak .291
6.4.4.1 ZERGATIK?: -LAKO - FROM WHAT, WHY; BECAUSE.291
6.4.4.2 ETA .292
6.4.4.3 BAIT- 293
6.4.4.4 -NEZ GERO - SINCE, AS FOR WHAT, CONCERNING WHAT.294
6.4.4.5 -LA ETA - BECAUSE OF295
6.4.4.6 -T(Z)EARREN -AS, BECAUSE 295
6.4.5 CONDITIONAL CLAUSES - Baldintzazko Perpausak .296
6.4.5.1 BA-296
6.4.5.2 -Z GERO - IN CASE, IN THE CASE THAT, BY.297
6.4.5.3 EZIK, IZAN EZIK - EXCEPT FOR, APART FROM .298
6.4.5.4 .EZEZIK.ERE - .NOT ONLY .BUT .(ALSO). 298
6.4.6 RELATIVE CLAUSES - Erlatibozko Perpausak299
6.4.6.1 -N - THAT/WHO299
6.4.6.2 -TAKO (-RIKO)301
6.4.7 TEMPORAL CLAUSES - Denborazko Perpausak.303
6.4.7.1 BAINO LEHEN(AGO), AURRETIK, AITZIN - BUT FIRST,
BEFORE 303
6.4.7.2 ORDUKO - BEFORE, AS SOON AS, FOR WHEN .304
6.4.7.3 -T(Z)ERAKOAN 304
6.4.7.4 -T(Z)EAN, -NEAN, -N BITARTEAN, BITARTEAN.305
6.4.7.5 BEZAIN LASTER, -TAKOAN- AS SOON AS, JUST AFTER308
6.4.7.6 ETA GERO, ONDOREN - AFTER309
6.4.7.7 -N BAKOITZEAN / -N GUZTIETAN / -N GEHIENETAN
- EACH TIME / WHENEVER / MOST OF THE TIME .309
6.4.7.8 -N ARTE - UNTIL WHEN.310
6.4.8 CONCESSIVE - Kontzesiboa .312
6.4.8.1 ARREN, AGATIK - ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, EVEN IF,
IN SPITE OF.312
6.4.8.2 NAHIZ ETA - ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, EVEN IF 313
6.4.8.3 BAERE - ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, EVEN IF 314
6.4.8.4 TA/DA ERE - ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, EVEN IF.314
6.4.9 MODAL CLAUSES - Moduzko Perpausak315
6.4.9.1 -N BEZALA / -N BEZALAKO(A) - AS/HOW/LIKE/SAME.315
6.4.9.2 -N MODUAN / -N MODUKO(A) - AS, IN THE WAY, HOW 318
6.4.9.3 -T(Z)EKO MODUAN / -T(Z)EKO MODUKO(A) - ABOUT TO,
ABOUT ENOUGH319
6.4.9.4 -NEZ - ACCORDING TO (WHAT), APPARENTLY, AS,
LIKE, FROM WHAT 319
6.4.9.5 -N LEGEZ - LIKE, AS .320
6.4.9.6 OTHER FORMS.320
6.4.10 COMPARATIVE CLAUSES - Konparaziozko Perpausak.321
6.4.10.1 -AGO / -EGI / -EN - MORE, TOO MUCH, MOST.322
6.4.10.2 HAIN, HAINBESTE - SO / THAT, SO MUCH / THAT MANY .324
6.4.10.3 BAINO .-AGO 325
6.4.10.4 BEZAIN / BESTE(ADINA) - AS.AS.326
6.4.10.5 COMPARATIVE EXPRESSIONS 328

VII. NOTIONS & ELEMENTS
- Nozioak eta Osagaiak. 331
7.1 THE NOTION OF TIME - Denbora-Nozioa 333
7.1.1 NOIZ - WHEN.333
7.1.2 NOIZTIK (NOIZDANIK) - SINCE WHEN .334
7.1.3 NOIZKO - FROM WHEN, FOR WHEN335
7.1.3.1 NOIZKO? (FROM WHEN?)335
7.1.3.2 NOIZKO? (FOR WHEN?) .335
7.1.4 NOIZ ARTE - UNTIL WHEN 336
7.1.5 MAIZTASUNA - FREQUENCY337
7.1.5.1 NOIZETIK, NOIZERA - FROM WHEN, TO WHEN.337
7.1.5.2 NOIZERO - HOW OFTEN 338
7.1.5.3 ZENBATETAN? ASKOTAN - HOW MANY TIMES?
MANY TIMES.339
7.1.5.4 ZENBAT ALDIZ? (ZENBAT BIDER?) - HOW MANY TIMES.339
7.1.5.5 ORAINGOAN / GAURKOAN - THIS TIME340
7.1.5.6 OTHER FORMS.341
7.2 THE TIME - Ordua, Tenore343
7.2.1 ZER ORDUA DA? - WHAT IS THE TIME {HOUR; lit.} 343
7.2.2 ZER ORDUTAN? - AT WHAT TIME .345
7.2.3 ZER ORDUTATIK? - FROM/SINCE WHAT TIME?.345
7.2.4 ZER ORDUTARA? -TO/UNTIL WHAT TIME?.346
7.2.5 ZER ORDUTAKO? - AT/OF WHAT TIME? 347
7.2.6 ZER ORDUTARAKO? - FOR WHAT TIME? 347
7.2.7 ZER ORDUTARA ARTE? - UNTIL WHAT TIME?.348
7.2.8 EXPRESSIONS - Esapideak .348
7.2.8.1 HIRU-HIRURAK - EXACTLY, ON-THE-DOT, PRECISELY348
7.2.8.2 HIRURAK JOTA349
7.2.8.3 HIRURAK JOTZEKO - GOING TO BE .349
7.2.8.4 ZAZPIAK INGURU - ABOUT/AROUND349
7.2.8.5 ZAZPIAK ALDERA - AT ABOUT, AROUND ABOUT .350
7.3 TEMPORAL EXPRESSIONS - Denborazko Esapideak.352
7.3.1 THE MOST USUAL ADVERBS352
7.3.2 THE DAY - EGUNA.353
7.3.3 THE DAYS - EGUNAK353
7.3.4 THE WEEK - ASTEA.354
7.3.5 THE MONTHS - HILABETEAK .355
7.3.6 THE SEASONS - URTAROAK .355
7.3.7 THE YEARS - URTEAK 356
7.3.8 DATORREN is not HURRENGO.356
7.3.9 DAGOENEKO; HONEZKERO - ALREADY; BY NOW .357
7.3.10 EXPRESSIONS - ESAPIDEAK .358
7.4 THE DATE - Data361
7.4.1 1987.eko urriAREN 17a 361
7.4.2 1988.eko urriAK 17 .363
7.4.3 ERA LABURTA - REDUCED FORM.363

7.5 THE WEATHER - Eguraldia.364
7.5.1 ORTZI (OSTE) - GOD OF THE FIRMAMENT 364
7.5.2 EURIA EGITEN DU - IT IS RAINING .365
7.5.3 EGUZKIA DAGO - IT IS SUNNY.366
7.5.4 EURIA DAKAR - IT IS GOING TO RAIN .366
7.5.5 EURIA HASI DU - THE RAIN HAS STARTED 367
7.5.6 ILARGIA - THE MOON.367
7.5.7 OTHER EXPRESSIONS - Zenbait Esapideak367
7.6 THE SENSATIONS / FEELINGS - Sentipenak .369
7.6.1 GOSE NAIZ - I AM HUNGRY 369
7.6.2 HOTZAK NAGO - I AM COLD 369
7.6.3 GURA - WANTING TO/CURIOUS.370
7.6.4 BURUKO MINA DAUKAT - I HAVE A HEADACHE .371
7.6.5 IZAN / EDUKI 371
7.7 THE SENSES - Ahalmenak 373
7.7.1 COLOURS - Koloreak.373
7.7.2 TASTES - Zaporeak 376
7.8 COURTESY EXPRESSIONS - Kortesiazko Esapideak377
7.8.1 GREETINGS AND FAREWELLS - Agurrak 377
7.8.2 SAYING THANK YOU -Esekerrak Ematen 380
7.8.3 ASKING FORGIVENESS, SAYING SORRY - Barkamena Eskatzen380
7.9 NUMBERS - Zenbakiak381
7.10 MEASUREMENTS - Zenbatasuna384
7.10.1 PRICES - Salneurriak 384
7.10.2 WEIGHT - Pisua385
7.10.3 CAPACITY - Edukiera385
7.10.4 QUANTITY - Kantitatea .386
7.10.5 DIMENSIONS - Dimentsioak .387
7.10.6 FRACTIONS - Zatikiak.388
7.10.7 MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS - Eragiketa Matematikoak 388
7.10.8 VELOCITY - Abiadura .389
7.10.9 PERCENTAGES - Ehunekoak389
7.10.9.1 BATEZ BESTE - ON AVERAGE 390
7.10.10 CALCULATION/SCORING - Tanteoa 390
7.10.11 VARIOUS EXPRESSIONS - Zenbait Esapide .391
7.10.11.1 Josu ETA BIOK - JOSU AND THE TWO OF US 391
7.10.11.2 ZazpiNA / zazpiNAKA - EACH, BOTH392
7.10.11.3 BANAKA - ONE BY ONE, ONE AT A TIME, IN ONES .392
7.10.11.4 hogei BAT - APPROXIMATE NUMBERS, ABOUT .393
7.10.11.5 GUTXI GORABEHERA - MORE OR LESS 393
7.10.11.6 ehun INGURU - AROUND 100 .393

APPENDIX 1 : CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS
- Aditz Languntzailea 396
APPENDIX 2 : IMPERATIVE VERB CONJUGATION
- Agintera . 399
APPENDIX 3 : CONJUGATION OF SYNTHETIC VERBS. 400
1. ATXIKI - TO HOLD, HOLD ONTO, HOLD BACK 400
2. EDUKI - TO HAVE, TO POSSESS .400
3. EGIN - TO DO, TO MAKE 401
4. EGON - TO BE (LOCATION, PRESENT STATE), TO STAY, TO WAIT401
5. EKARRI - TO BRING 402
6. EMAN - TO GIVE, TO SEEM, TO DEVOTE ONESELF 402
7. ENTZUN - TO LISTEN, TO HEAR 403
8. ERABILI - TO USE 403
9. ERAMAN - TO CARRY, TO TRANSPORT, TO ENDURE 404
10. ERION - TO FLOW, TO POUR.404
11. EROAN - TO TAKE, TO ENDURE 405
12. ESAN (ERRAN) - TO SAY, TO TELL405
13. ETORRI - TO COME .405
14. ETZAN- TO LAY DOWN, TO SET 406
15. EZAGUTU - TO KNOW (SOMEONE), TO RECOGNISE 406
16. IBILI - TO GO, TO MOVE, TO WALK, TO BE OCCUPIED406
17. IHARDUN - TO SPEND TIME407
18. IKUSI - TO SEE, TO VISIT, TO NOTICE 407
19. IRAKIN - TO BOIL, TO FERMENT .407
20. IRAUN - TO ENDURE, TO LAST 408
21. IRITZI - TO THINK OF, TO HAVE AN OPINION ABOUT.408
22. IRUDI - TO SEEM409
23. JAKIN - TO KNOW (ABOUT), TO DISCOVER409
24. JARIO - TO FLOW, TO POUR OUT.409
25. JARRAIKKI/JARRAITU - TO FOLLOW .410
26. JOAN - TO GO, TO LEAVE 410
APPENDIX 4 : THE FIRST FOUR LEVELS OF THE HABE
CURRICULUM 411
LEVEL ONE .411
LEVEL TWO 412
LEVEL TH413
LEVEL FOU414
APPENDIX 5 : DECLENSION TABLES. 415
D415
INT415
DECLENSION OF NOUN PHRASES.416
MORPHOLOGICAL RULES FOR DECLENSIONS416
PERSONAL PRONOUNS417
ADVERBS OF PLACE.417
APPENDIX 6 - COMPOUND VERBS - Eman, Hartu,
Izan, Ukan 418

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