LINGUIST List 12.956

Thu Apr 5 2001

TOC: Interpreting 4:1

Editor for this issue: Naomi Ogasawara <>


  1. Stanton L Kreutzer, Interpreting 4:1 (1999)

Message 1: Interpreting 4:1 (1999)

Date: Wed, 04 Apr 2001 13:17:35 -0400
From: Stanton L Kreutzer <>
Subject: Interpreting 4:1 (1999)

Interpreting 4:1 (1999)

� John Benjamins Publishing Company 

Ingrid Kurz and Margareta Bowen (pp. 1-8) 

Francesca Gaiba (pp. 9-22) 
Interpretation at the Nuremberg Trial 

Aleksandr Shveitser (S^vejcer) (pp. 23-28) 
At the Dawn of Simultaneous Interpretation in Russia 

Jes�s Baigorri-Jal�n (pp. 29-40) 
Conference Interpreting: From Modern Times to Space Technology* 

Ghelly V. Chernov (pp. 41-54) 
Simultaneous interpretation in Russia: Development of Research and Training 

D. Seleskovitch (pp. 55-66) 
The Teaching of Conference Interpretation in the Course of the Last 50 Years 

Jennifer Mackintosh (pp. 67-80) 
Interpreters are Made not Born 

Walter Keiser (pp. 81-95) 
L'Histoire de l'Association Internationale des Interpr�tes de Conf�rence

Ruth Morris (pp. 97-123) 
The Face of Justice: Historical Aspects of Court Interpreting 

Franz P�chhacker (pp. 125-140) 
'Getting Organized': The Evolution of Community Interpreting 

Authors in this issue 

Interpreting 4:1 (1999)

� John Benjamins Publishing Company 
Interpretation at the Nuremberg Trial 
Francesca Gaiba 

It is often argued that the first War Crimes Trial (Nuremberg Trial)
could not have been possible without simultaneous interpretation. This
notwithstanding, Nuremberg interpreters have been consistently ignored
in the historical record. This paper seeks to do justice to the
language personnel of the Nuremberg Trial, by presenting the people
who brought interpretation to the Trial, the court interpreters
themselves, and the effect that interpretation was perceived to have
on the proceedings. For this paper I draw on historical official and
unofficial documents of the Nuremberg Trial deposited in major
national archives, as well as on personal communication with 12
interpreters who worked at the Trial in Nuremberg between 1945 and

At the Dawn of Simultaneous Interpretation in Russia 
Aleksandr Shveitser (S^vejcer) 

This is a brief outline of the early history of simultaneous
interpretation in Russia from its first use at the 6th Comintern
Congress (1928). The highlights of the early postwar period included
the active participation of Soviet interpreters in the Nuremberg Trial
and the Tokyo Trial of major Japanese war criminals. The real baptism
of fire for a large group of Russian conference interpreters was the
International Economic Conference held in Moscow in 1952. Since the
19th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, simultaneous translation
has been more and more widely used on such occasions. The technique
and hardware of simultaneous interpretation, at first somewhat crude
and primitive, were gradually upgraded approaching international

Conference Interpreting: From Modern Times to Space Technology* 
Jes�s Baigorri-Jal�n 

Based on original sources, both written and oral, the paper offers an
overview of the path followed by the profession of conference
interpreting since its birth at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference until
now, with a diachronic perspective that may serve as a useful compass
to forecast its future course.

Simultaneous interpretation in Russia: Development of Research and Training 
Ghelly V. Chernov 

Simultaneous conference interpretation was first practiced in Russia
towards the end of the 1920s on rather primitive equipment. Research
in simultaneous interpretation began in the 1960s and the concepts of
the primacy of the sense of the message and the significance of
interpreters' extra-linguistic knowledge underlay the training from
the very beginning. A brief description is given of the history of the
few schools of translation and interpreting existing in Russia. The
author shows to what extent ongoing research in SI in Russia had an
impact on the curricula of the schools. Finally, several suggestions
are made on how to improve both training methods and lab equipment in

The Teaching of Conference Interpretation in the Course of the Last 50 Years 

D. Seleskovitch 

This contribution looks back at 50 years of teaching conference
interpretation. The author discusses natural interpretation and
irrational, system-imposed interpreting and sets forth the underlying
linguistic assumptions that explain conflicting views on shadowing,
simultaneous into a B language, note taking, etc.

Interpreters are Made not Born 
Jennifer Mackintosh 

Conference interpreter (CI) training since the Nuremberg Trials, where
simultaneous interpretation was successfully used on a wide scale for
the first time, is discussed. The establishment of interpreting
schools and development of the CI curriculum and training paradigm are
followed through to the present day. Curriculum models are identified
and the content of training programmes discussed. The role played by
AIIC in establishing the CI training paradigm via symposia, workshops
and publications is presented. The increasing importance of theory in
CI teaching is considered and doctoral programmes in CI studies are
mentioned. The training of CI trainers is identified as a recent
development and existing training possibilities reviewed. The paper
goes on to discuss courses organised to meet special needs (e.g. new
languages in the European Union) and the European Masters programme in
CI being developed jointly by the European Union and a consortium of
European Universities. It concludes with a brief indication of
important issues in CI training for the future.

L'Histoire de l'Association Internationale des Interpr�tes de Conf�rence
Walter Keiser 

This article attempts to cover the history of the International
Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) from its beginnings in
the early fifties to present day challenges and recent
developments. As AIIC evolved and its membership increased to about
2500 members around the world, so did its complexity. Its evolution
mirrors the coming of age of a profession with the concomitant
challenges that every profession and professional organization must
face today: safeguarding standards of quality, maintaining and
improving working conditions, the forces of deregulation and changes
brought about by new technologies. AIIC can look back on solid
accomplishments covering most every facet of the profession, its
achievements serving professional interpreters around the world,
whether they are members of AIIC or not.

The Face of Justice: Historical Aspects of Court Interpreting 
Ruth Morris 

Historically, although overall attitudes to court interpreting vary
over time, certain issues are perennial : in particular, an
individual's right (or otherwise) to interpretation (entitlement),
deciding whether a need for interpretation exists (determination), and
interpreter competence (quality). This paper strives to convey an
awareness of the various difficulties that seem from case reports to
have existed historically -- and may indeed still be present in
various judicial systems -- in addressing these issues in a way which
seems satisfactory to the various participants involved. It does so by
quoting extensively the words of some of the judicial actors who over
the decades have addressed this vital, but often woefully
under-considered issue. The lamentable plight in which some
language-handicapped defendants have found themselves may be guessed
at from appellate courts' comments about the behaviour of lower

'Getting Organized': The Evolution of Community Interpreting 
Franz P�chhacker 

Based on a broad definition of the concept of community interpreting,
the paper gives an overview of the development of community-based
interpreting as a profession since the 1960s. Reviewing both the field
of sign language interpreting and spoken-language community
interpreting in the context of migration, major elements in the
process of professionalization are described with reference to
selected examples. The overall picture is one of great diversity of
approaches, constraints and responses to the challenge of intra-
social interpreting needs throughout the world, shaped by the variable
interplay of factors like the existence of legal provisions,
institutional arrangements for interpreter service delivery, an
authority-driven or profession-based system of accreditation or
certification more or less specifying standards of practice and
professional ethics, training programs within (or outside) the
established public system of higher education, and a professional
organization more or less inclusive of various types of interpreting
activity. Typically, interpreting services 'get organized' (by
institutions or community agencies) before practitioners get organized
to shape their professional terms of reference, and much progress in
the evolution of community interpreting is still to be made.

Stanton L. Kreutzer		 Tel: (215) 836-1200
Publicity/Marketing Fax: (215) 836-1204
John Benjamins Publishing Co
PO Box 27519 Philadelphia PA 19118-0519 
John Benjamins web site:
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