LINGUIST List 12.960

Thu Apr 5 2001

All: List of Extinct Languages

Editor for this issue: Anthony Rodrigues Aristar <>


  1. aristar, List of Extinct Languages

Message 1: List of Extinct Languages

Date: 5 Apr 2001 20:18:24 -0000
From: aristar <>
Subject: List of Extinct Languages

Dear Colleagues:

The LINGUIST list would like to ask for your help. LINGUIST is at
present redesigning its site, and expanding its offerings
dramatically. An essential part of this expansion entails moving all
our data (and all future data that we collect) into a database. Each
piece of data will be categorized in a number of ways that are
appropriate to its type. One of the most important ways that data
will be categorized is by language.

We have benefited from the generosity of SIL, which has agreed to let
us use the Ethnologue codes. This has saved us an immense amount of
work. We're very pleased that we won't have to launch into a
full-scale categorization of all human languages!

There are still gaps in the Ethnologue codes, however. As you may
know, Ethnologue only includes languages which are either spoken or
still in use in some function. Thus Latin, Sanskrit and Ge`ez are
listed in Ethnologue, since these are in liturgical use today, but
Akkadian is not.

On LINGUIST, of course, we need to be able to categorize 
data which belongs to any language, whether current or not, 
so it's fallen to us to fill in the gaps in Ethnologue. 
As a result, we've put together a list of languages, all 
of which are extinct, and do not appear in Ethnologue, 
along with a brief set of describing information. The 
following is an example:

Akkadian (Accadian, Assyrian, Assyro-Babylonian, Babylonian) XAKK
<Afroasiatic, Semitic, East; Mesopotamia; 4th Millennium BC to 100 AD>

First is the canonical language name. Following this, in parenthesis,
is a list of alternate names which have been used for the language.
Next comes an internal LINGUIST code which you may ignore. In angle
brackets follows the following information, in this order: Family to
which the language belongs, followed by each node between it and the
parent language; place where the language was spoken; time when the
language was spoken. Each of these fields is delimited by a

What we would like to ask is your help in ensuring that the data in
this list is accurate. So we are asking you to look over the data
which falls within your area of expertise, and tell us the following:

1. Which extinct languages are missing in the list?

2. If any languages are missing, could you supply us with information
to make up a new entry in our list?

3. Is any of the data listed for any of the languages below missing,
inaccurate, or just plain wrong? This includes alternate names which
we have omitted.

We will only be listing languages which have left some trace, even if
only slight. Reconstructed languages will be treated separately, as
part of our language family tables.

Note: The following languages are omitted from the list below, since
we have complete data on them:

Old Church Slavonic, Old English, Old Frankish, Old High German, Old
Irish, Old Norse, Old Persian, Old Prussian, Old Saxon, Old Turkish

The data we collect here will be made available to the members of the
Open Language Archive Community
(and to anyone else who wants it), and will quite possible be used on
many sites. So your help will not only benefit LINGUIST, but perhaps
ultimately all linguists.

Please send all responses to:

Anthony Aristar
Moderator, LINGUIST


Akkadian (Accadian, Assyrian, Assyro-Babylonian, Babylonian)	
XAKK	<Afroasiatic, Semitic, East; Mesopotamia; 4th Millennium 
BC to 100 AD>

Bactrian	XBAC	<Ind-European, Indo-Iranian; Central Asia; 
300 BC - 1000 AD>

Carian	XCAR	<Unknown, possibly Indo-European; Anatolia; 
Before 1st Century AD>

Celtiberian (Celto-Iberian)	XCEL	<Indo-European, Celtic, 
Continental; Iberia; Late 1st Millennium BC- Early 1st 
Millennium AD>

Chorasmian (Khwarezmian)	XCHO	<Indo-European, Indo-Iranian; 
Central Asia; 300 BC - 1000 AD>

Classical Mongolian	XCMO	<Altaic; Central Asia; c 1500 AD>

Eblaite	XEBL	<Afroasiatic, Semitic, East;N. Mesopotamia; 
3rd Millenium BC>

Egyptian	XEGY	<Afroasiatic, Egyptian; Egypt; 3000 BC - 
300 BC>

Elamitic	XELA	<Unknown; SW. Iran; 3rd millennium BC - 8th 
Century BC>

Elymian	XELY	<Unknown; Sicily; 2nd half of 1st Millennium BC>

Etruscan	XETR	<Unknown; N. Italy; 7th century BC - 100 AD>

Faliscan	XFAL	<Indo-European, Italic, Latin-Faliscan; Central 
Italy; 4th Century BC>

Gallic (Gaulish)	XGAL	<Indo-European, Celtic, Continental; 
France/Belgium; Late 1st Millennium BC- Early 1st Millenium AD>

Hattic (Hattian, Khattic, Khattish, Proto-Hittite)	XHAT	
<Unknown; Central Anatolia; 2nd Millennium BC)

Hieroglyphic Luwian	XHLU	<Indo-European, Anatolian, Luwic; 
E.Anatolia; 2nd-1st Millennium BC>

Hittite (Nesili)	XHIT	<Indo-European, Anatolian; Central 
Anatolia; 2nd-1st millennium BC>

Hurrian	XHUR <Hurro-Urartean; NE. Anatolia; 2nd - Ist 
Millennium BC>

Iberian	XIBE	<Unknown; Iberia; 2nd half of 1st Millennium 
BC - 1st half of 1st Millennium AD>

Illyrian	XILL	<Indo-European, Illyrian; Balkans; 2nd half 
of 1st Millennium BC - 1st half of 1st Millennium AD>

Jurchin (Jurchi, Jurchen)	XJUR	<Southern Tungusic, Central 
Asia; c 1100 AD>

Kaskian XKAS <Unknown, NE Anatolia, 3rd-2nd Millennium BC>

Khotanese (Khotanese-Sakan)	XKHO	<IE, Indo-Iranian; Central 
Asia, 300 BC -1000 AD>

Kitan (Khitan, Liao)	XKIT	<Altaic, Mongolic, Manchuria; 
916-1125 AD>

Lepontic	XLEP	<Indo-European, Celtic, Continental; N. Italy; 
1st centuries BC>

Ligurian	XLEP	<Indo-European, Celtic, Continental; N. Italy; 
300 BC- 100 AD>

Lycian	XLYC	<Indo-European, Anatolian, Luwic; W. Anatolia; 
500 BC to about 200 BC>

Lusitanian	XLUS	<Indo-european, Unknown; SW Iberia; 2nd 
Century AD>

Luwian	XLUW	<IE, Anatolian, Luwic; E.Anatolia; 2nd-1st 
Millennium BC>

Lydian	XLYD	<IE, Anatolia, Luwic, W. Anatolia, c. 400 BC>

Macedonian	XMAC	<Indo-European, Hellenic; N. Greece; 1st 
Millennium BC>

Meroitic	XMER	<Unknown; Sudan; 200 BC - 4th century AD >

Messapian (Messapic)	XMES	<Indo-European; SE Italy; 
600-100 BC>

Mycenaean Greek	XMYC	<Indo-European, Hellenic, Greek; S. 
Greece; Late 2nd Millennium BC>

Mysian	XMYS	<<Indo-European, Unknown; Anatolia; Before 1st 
Century AD>

North Picenian	XNPI	<Unknown; Italy; 1st millennium BC >

Numidian (Ancient Berber, Lybico-Berber)	XNUM	<Afroasiatic, 
Berber; NW. Africa; c. 200 BC>

Old Ossetic	XASS	<IE, Indo-Iranian; Central Asia; 300 BC - 
1000 AD>

Oscan	XOSC	<Indo-European, Italic, Osco-Umbrian; Italy; 1st 
Millennium BC>

Pahlavi (Pehlevi)	XPAH	<IE, Indo-Iranian; Central Asia; 300 BC - 
1000 AD>

Palaic XPAC	<IE, Anatolian; Anatolia; 2nd Millennium BC>

Pamphylian	XPAM	<Indo-European, Anatolian; Anatolia; Before 
1st Century AD>

Parthian	XPAR	<IE, Indo-Iranian; Central Asia; 300 BC - 
1000 AD>

Phoenician	XPHO	<Afroasiatic, Semitic, Central, Canaanite; 
Lebanon; 2nd-1st Millennium BC>

Phrygian	XPHR	<IE, Unknown; W. Anatolia; 8th BC to 2nd AD>

Pisidian	XPIS	<Unknown; Anatolia; Before 1st Century AD>

Punic	XPUN	<Afroasiatic, Semitic, Central, Canaanite; N. 
Africa; 1st Millennium BC - 700 AD >

Rhaetic	XRHA	<Unknown, possible related to Etruscan; N. 
Italy/Switzerland; 1st Millennium BC>

Sabaean	XSAB	<Afroasiatic, Semitic, South, S. Arabia; 
before 700 AD>

Sakan	XSAK	<Indo-European, Indo-Iranian; Central Asia; 300 BC - 
1000 AD>

Sicel (Siculan)	XSIC	<Indo-European, Unknown; Sicily; 5-6th 
century BC>

Sidetic	XSID <Unknown, city of Side, Anatolia, 3rd to 2nd 
centuries BC>

Sogdian	XSOG	<Indo-European, Indo-Iranian; Central Asia; 
300 BC - 1000 AD >

South Picenian (South Picene, East Italic)	XSPI	<IE, Italy, 
from 7th BC>

Sumerian	XSUM	<Unknown; S.Iraq, Before 1st Millennium BC>

Tangut	XTAN	<Sino-Tibetan, Tibetan; Central Asia; c. 
11th century AD>

Tartessian XTAR <Unknown; SW Spain; 1st Millennium BC>

Thracian	XTHR	<Indo-European, Thracian; S. Balkans; 1st 
Millennium BC - 500 AD>

Tokharian A (Tocharian A, Eastern Tokharian, Turfanian, 
Karashahrian, Agnean)	XTOA	<Indo-European, Tokharian; 

Tokharian B (Tocharian B, Western Tokharian, Kuchean)	XTOB 
<Indo-European, Tokharian; Xinjiang>

Ugaritic	XUGA	<Afroasiatic, Semitic, Canaanite; Syria; 
15th to 13th Century BC>

Umbrian	XUMB	<Indo-European, Italic, Osco-Umbrian; Italy; 
before 1st century AD>

Urartian (Urartic, Vannic)	XURA <Hurro-Urartean; NE. 
Anatolia; Ist Millennium BC>

Venetic	XVEN <Indo-European, Unknown; N. Italy; from 5th BC - 
1st century BC>

Volscian	XVOL	<Indo-European, Italic, Osco-Umbrian; Italy; 
3rd century BC>
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