LINGUIST List 14.2200

Tue Aug 19 2003

FYI: Cognitive Ling; Cognitive Ling

Editor for this issue: Renee Galvis <reneelinguistlist.org>


Directory

  1. Art Markman, Coginitive Science
  2. Bastien Guerry, EALing I - 2003 - Fall School in Paris UPDATE

Message 1: Coginitive Science

Date: Mon, 18 Aug 2003 15:16:13 -0500
From: Art Markman <markmanpsy.utexas.edu>
Subject: Coginitive Science


John R. Anderson to Receive the David E. Rumelhart Prize
 for Contributions to the Formal Analysis of Human Cognition

The Glushko-Samuelson Foundation and the Cognitive Science Society are
pleased to announce that John R. Anderson has been chosen as the
fourth recipient of the $100,000 David E. Rumelhart Prize, awarded
annually for outstanding contributions to the formal analysis of human
cognition. Anderson will receive this prize and give the Prize Lecture
at the 26th Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society in Chicago,
August 4-8, 2004.

The David E. Rumelhart Prize

The David E. Rumelhart Prize was created by the Glushko-Samuelson
Foundation to honor David E. Rumelhart, a Cognitive Scientist who
exploited a wide range of formal methods to address issues and topics
in Cognitive Science. Perhaps best known for his contributions to
connectionist or neural network models, Rumelhart also exploited
symbolic models of human cognition, formal linguistic methods, and the
formal tools of mathematics. Reflecting this diversity, the first
three winners of the David E. Rumelhart Prize are individuals whose
work lies within three of these four approaches. Past recipients are
Geoffrey Hinton, a connectionist modeler, Richard M. Shiffrin, a
mathematical psychologist, and Aravind Joshi, a formal and
computational linguist. Anderson is the leading proponent of the
symbolic modeling framework, thereby completing coverage of the four
approaches.

Research Biography of John R. Anderson

John R. Anderson, Richard King Mellon Professor of Psychology and
Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University is an exemplary
recipient for a prize that is intended to honor "a significant
contemporary contribution to the formal analysis of human cognition".
For the last three decades, Anderson has been engaged in a vigorous
research program with the goal of developing a computational theory of
mind. Anderson's work is framed within the symbol processing
framework and has involved an integrated program of experimental work,
mathematical analyses, computational modeling, and rigorous
applications. His research has provided the field of cognitive
psychology with comprehensive and integrated theories. Furthermore,
it has had a real impact on educational practice in the classroom and
on student achievement in learning mathematics.

Anderson's contributions have arisen across a career that consists of
five distinct phases. Phase 1 began when he entered graduate school
at Stanford at a time when cognitive psychology was incorporating
computational techniques from artificial intelligence. During this
period and immediately after his graduation from Stanford, he
developed a number of simulation models of various aspects of human
cognition such as free recall [1]. His major contribution from this
time was the HAM theory, which he developed with Gordon Bower. In
1973, he and Bower published the book Human Associative Memory [2],
which immediately attracted the attention of everyone then working in
the field. The book played a major role in establishing propositional
semantic networks as the basis for representation in memory and
spreading activation through the links in such networks as the basis
for retrieval of information from memory. It also provided an initial
example of a research style that has become increasingly used in
cognitive science: to create a comprehensive computer simulation
capable of performing a range of cognitive tasks and to test this
model with a series of experiments addressing the phenomena within
that range.

Dissatisfied with the limited scope of his early theory, Anderson
undertook the work which has been the major focus of his career to
date, the development of the ACT theory [3]. ACT extended the HAM
theory by combining production systems with semantic nets and the
mechanism of spreading activation. The second phase of Anderson's
career is associated with the initial development of ACT. The theory
reached a significant level of maturity with the publication in 1983
of The Architecture of Cognition [4], which is the most cited of his
research monographs (having received almost 2000 citations in the
ensuing years). At the time of publication, The ACT* model described
in this book was the most integrated model of cognition that had then
been produced and tested. It has had a major impact on the theoretical
development of the field and on the movement toward comprehensive and
unified theories, incorporating separation of procedural and
declarative knowledge and a series of mechanisms for production rule
learning that became the focus of much subsequent research on the
acquisition of cognitive skills. In his own book on Unified Theories
of Cognition, Alan Newell had this to say: "ACT*, is in my opinion,
the first unified theory of cognition. It has pride of place.... [It]
provides a threshold of success which all other candidates... must
exceed".

Anderson then began a major program to test whether ACT* and its skill
acquisition mechanisms actually provided an integrated and accurate
account of learning. He started to apply the theory to development of
intelligent tutoring systems; this defines the third phase of his
research. This work grew from an initial emphasis on teaching the
programming language LISP to a broader focus on high-school
mathematics [5], responding to perceptions of a national crisis in
mathematics education. These systems have been shown to enable
students to reach target achievement levels in a third of the usual
time and to improve student performance by a letter grade in real
classrooms. Anderson guided this research to the point where a full
high school curriculum was developed that was used in urban schools.
Subsequently, a separate corporation has been created to place the
tutor in hundreds of schools, influencing tens of thousands of
students. The tutor curriculum was recently recognized by the
Department of Education as one of five "exemplary curricula"
nationwide. While Anderson does not participate in that company, he
continues research developing better tools for tracking individual
student cognition, and this research continues to be informed by the
ACT theory. His tutoring systems have established that it is possible
to impact education with rigorous simulation of human cognition.

In the late 1980s, Anderson began work on what was to define the
fourth phase of his research, which was an attempt to understand how
the basic mechanisms of a cognitive architecture were adapted to the
statistical structure of the environment. Anderson (1990) [6] called
this a rational analysis of cognition and applied it to the domains of
human memory, categorization, causal inference, and problem solving.
He utilized Bayesian statistics to derive optimal solutions to the
problems posed by the environment and showed that human cognition
approximated these solutions. Such optimization analysis and use of
Bayesian techniques have become increasingly prevalent in Cognitive
Science.

Subsequent to the rational analysis effort, Anderson has returned his
full attention back to the ACT theory, defining the fifth and current
phase of his career. With Christian Lebiere, he has developed the
ACT-R theory, which incorporates the insights from his work on
rational analysis [7]. Reflecting the developments in computer
technology and the techniques learned in the applications of ACT*, the
ACT-R system was made available for general use. A growing and very
active community of well over 100 researchers is now using it to model
a wide range of issues in human cognition, including dualtasking,
memory, language, scientific discovery, and game playing. It has
become increasingly used to model dynamic tasks like air-traffic
control, where it promises to have training implications equivalent to
the mathematics tutors. Through the independent work of many
researchers, the field of cognitive science is now seeing a single
unified system applied to an unrivaled range of tasks. Much of
Anderson's own work on the ACT-R has been involved relating the theory
to data from functional brain imaging [8].

In addition to his enormous volume of original work, Anderson has
found the time to produce and revise two textbooks, one on cognitive
psychology [9] and the other on learning and memory [10]. The
cognitive psychology textbook, now in its fifth edition, helped define
the course of study that is modern introductory cognitive
psychology. His more recent learning and memory textbook, now in its
second edition, is widely regarded as reflecting the new synthesis
that is occurring in that field among animal learning, cognitive
psychology, and cognitive neuroscience.

Anderson has previously served as president of the Cognitive Science
Society and has received a number of awards in recognition of his
contributions. In 1978 he received the American Psychological
Association's Early Career Award; in 1981 he was elected to membership
in the Society of Experimental Psychologists; in 1994 he received
APA's Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award; and in 1999 he was
elected to both the National Academy of Sciences and the American
Academy of Arts and Science. Currently, as a member of the National
Academy, he is working towards bringing more rigorous science
standards to educational research.

1. Anderson, J. R., & Bower, G. H. (1972). Recognition and retrieval
processes in free recall. Psychological Review, 79, 97-123.

2. Anderson, J. R. & Bower, G. H. (1973). Human associative
memory. Washington: Winston and Sons.

3. Anderson, J. R. (1976). Language, memory, and thought. Hillsdale,
NJ: Erlbaum.

4. Anderson, J. R. (1983). The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press.

5. Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K., & Pelletier, R.
(1995). Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned. The Journal of Learning
Sciences, 4, 167-207.

6. Anderson, J. R. (1990). The Adaptive Character of
Thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

7. Anderson, J. R. & Lebiere, C. (1998). The atomic components of
thought. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

8. Anderson, J. R., Qin, Y., Sohn, M-H., Stenger, V. A. & Carter, C.
S. (2003.) An information-processing model of the BOLD response in
symbol manipulation tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 10, 241-261.

9. Anderson, J. R. (2000). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications:
Fifth Edition. New York: Worth Publishing.

10. Anderson, J. R. (2000). Learning and Memory, Second Edition. New
York: Wiley.
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Message 2: EALing I - 2003 - Fall School in Paris UPDATE

Date: Mon, 18 Aug 2003 11:55:37 +0000
From: Bastien Guerry <Bastien.Guerryens.fr>
Subject: EALing I - 2003 - Fall School in Paris UPDATE

Ecole d automne en Linguistique I - EALing I - 2003 - Fall School in
Linguistics

Short Title: EALing 2003

Date: 23-Sep-2003 - 03-Oct-2003
Location: Paris, France
Contact Email: ealingdec.ens.fr 
Meeting URL: http://www.cognition.ens.fr/ealing

Linguistic Sub-field: Cognitive Science

Meeting Description:

The Department of Cognitive Studies at the Ecole Normale Supérieure
(ENS) in Paris organizes its first international Fall School in
Linguistics (on the ''summer school'' model). The goal of this
interdisciplinary Fall school is to provide a broad exposure to
linguistic theory and grammar based approaches to cognitive studies.

 **UPDATE** 
The detailed Program is now posted on the school URL.


==========================================
EALing I 2003 - Fall School in Linguistics
==========================================

The Department of Cognitive Studies at the Ecole Normale Supérieure
(ENS) in Paris organizes its first international Fall School in
Linguistics (on the summer school model).

The goal of this interdisciplinary Fall school is to provide a broad
exposure to linguistic theory and grammar based approaches to
cognitive studies. The lectures will include: 

* General non technical introductions to contemporary linguistic
	research
* Intensive introductory courses to some core areas of linguistic
	theory
* Seminars and talks on current research
* Exchanges between research in grammar and some related domains
	Neurolinguistics, Computational Linguistics,
	Psycholinguistics, Neuroimagery

This Fall school will be held at the Ecole Normale Superieure (45 rue
d Ulm, 75005 Paris: see http://www.ens.fr, from Tuesday, September the
23rd to Thursday October the 2nd Included


Pre-registration
________________

This Fall School is free but pre-registration is mandatory. 

All relevant information is posted and regularly updated on the EALing
website: http://www.cognition.ens.fr/ealing/

- calendar of courses, seminars and lectures
- teaching and lecturing faculty
- the registration procedure
- lodging and other practical information 

Please address all correspondance to: ealingdec.ens.fr 
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