LINGUIST List 14.2267

Thu Aug 28 2003

Qs: Particles; Langs as Code

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  1. Morrison, Question: Subject: Particles
  2. Bill CHAPMAN, Secret languages

Message 1: Question: Subject: Particles

Date: Thu, 28 Aug 2003 12:08:56 +0930
From: Morrison <>
Subject: Question: Subject: Particles

Dear Listmembers,

I am looking for an introductory cross-linguistic overview of
'particles'. Can anyone recommend an introductory discussion that
extends beyond the Indo-European languages?

I will post a summary of any responses,

Anne Morrison
PhD Candidate
Communication, Information & New Media,
University of South Australia
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Message 2: Secret languages

Date: Thu, 28 Aug 2003 06:52:26 +0000
From: Bill CHAPMAN <>
Subject: Secret languages

I am interested in the issue of languages, which are minority or
unlikely to be understood by many in a given environment, used for
secret purposes. For instance it is well known that a version of
Navaho was used by U.S. Forces during the Second World War. There are
indications that the Royal Air Force planned to use Welsh for a
similar reason. According to Salikoko S. Mufwene, some African
languages were apparently used in Haiti as secret codes during the
Revolution wars.

Do List members know of other such examples?

Bill Chapman, Wales 
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