LINGUIST List 15.2242

Fri Aug 6 2004

Sum: Names of Foreigner or Immigrant Varieties

Editor for this issue: Steve Moran <>


  1. Lars Anders Kulbrandstad, Names of immigrant speech

Message 1: Names of immigrant speech

Date: Fri, 6 Aug 2004 10:28:11 -0400 (EDT)
From: Lars Anders Kulbrandstad <>
Subject: Names of immigrant speech

In a posting in June (Linguist 15.1822) I asked for help with a survey
of what varieties spoken immigrants and foreigners are called in
various languages. I have received a number of responses both to that
query and to a parallel enquiry to members of the British Association
of Applied Linguistics. All contributors should by now have received
individual thanks for their kind assistance (my apologies if anyone
has been left out). Here is an overview of the material that I have
obtained so far, including previously registered terms from the
Scandinavian languages:

DANISH: gebrokken dansk (broken Danish), innvandrerdansk (mmigrant
Danish), udl�ndingedansk (foreigner Danish), nydansk (new Danish),
perkerdansk (Persh-Turk Danish), wallahdansk (wallah Danish),
jallasprog (jalla language), danimix (Danish mixture)

NORWEGIAN: gebrokken norsk (broken Norwegian), innvandrernorsk
(immigrant Norwegian), utlendingnorsk (foreigner Norwegian),
kebabnorsk (kebab Norwegian), vollanorsk/wallanorsk (wallah Norwegian)
jallaspr�k (jalla language), pakkisnorsk (Paki(stani) Norwegian),
salsanorsk (Salsa Norwegian)

SWEDISH: bruten svensk (broken Swedish), invandrarsvenska (immigrant
Swedish), Rinkebysvenska (Rinkeby Swedish), Albysvenska (Alby
Swedish), Fittjasvenska (Fittja Swedish), Tenstasvenska (Tensta
Swedish), f�rortsvenska (Suburb Swedish) G�rdstenska (G�rdsten
language), vestsvenska (West Swedish), Roseng�rdsvenska (Roseng�rd
Swedish) m�ngsvenska (multi Swedish)

GERMAN: Ausl�nderdeutsch (foreigner German), Balkan-Slang (Balkan
slang), gebrochen (broken), D�ner-Deutch (Kebab German), Kanak Sprak
(Kanak language), Kanakisch (Kanakish), Kebab-Deutch (kebab German),
Kiez reden (hood speaking), krass redden (cool speaking),
Stra�endeutsch (street German), T�rken-Deutsch (Turk-German), T�tsch
(Tur(kish-Germ)an), Voll krass-Slang (real cool slang)

DUTCH: Damsko-taal (Amsterdam language), gebroken Nederlands (broken
Dutch), krom-praten (crooked speaking), Murks (m + (T)urkish (?)),
straattaal (street language), smurfentaal (smurf language),
Turks-Nederlands (Turkish-Dutch)

FRENCH: franglais (French English), langage/parler de banliue
(language of suburb), langage/parler beur (language of Arabs),
langage/parler de (la) cit�/des cites (language of (the) towers
blocks), langage/parler de la zone (language of the former slum belt),
tchatche (chat), n�ofrancais (neofrench), petit n�gre (little negro)

ENGLISH (not complete): Broken English, Chinglish, Danlish, Dunglish,
Engrish, Finglish/Finnlish, Germish, Immigrant English, Italish,
Japlish, Manglish, Norwenglish, Porto-Crucian, Singlish, Spanglish,
Swenglish,Yeshivish, Yinglish

OTHER LANGUAGES: GREEK: Anglo-pontiaka (Pontios-English), SPANISH:
castellano/espa�ol motoso (Spanish with "mote" � kind of white
corn), portu�ol (portu(gu�s)+(espa)�ol), SWAHILI: Ki-Setla (settler

Data like these can be analysed from several perspectives: What kind
of variety is referred to by the terms (e.g. the majority language
spoken with a general "immigrant" character, language in multiethnic
urban youth groups)? Who use the terms (are they exonymic or
endonymic)? What is the origin of the terms? How do the terms present
the varieties (by localisation, ethnic affiliation ...)? What is the
emotive load of the terms? What concepts and attitudes might lie
behind the terms? In an ongoing project I try to answer such
questions. Any further contributions from readers of LINGUIST will be
highly appreciated.

Lars Anders Kulbrandstad
Hedmark University College
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