LINGUIST List 16.415

Thu Feb 10 2005

Qs: Tianjin Tone Sandhi; 'to be' Grammaticalization

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        1.    Te-hsin Liu, Tone Sandhi in Tianjin
        2.    F.K. Agama, Grammaticization with Respect to the Verb

Message 1: Tone Sandhi in Tianjin

Date: 10-Feb-2005
From: Te-hsin Liu <>
Subject: Tone Sandhi in Tianjin

Dear Linguists:

I am a graduate student in Linguistics at Paris VIII University, and I have
some questions about tone sandhi in Tianjin (a dialect of Mandarin).

According to data of Matthew Chen (1985, 2000), Tianjin has four tones on
monosyllables: H, L, LH and HL. When two tones are juxtposed, the following
changes take place.

(1). LH.LH->H.LH
(2). HL.HL->L.HL
(3). L.L.->LH.L
(4). HL.L->L

Yip (1989) suggests that H is the unmarked tone since it plays no part at
all in these alternations. Here are the questions about this dialect:

We get the output H.LH for (1), after a processus of sandhi. This result
would be homophonic with the existing sequence H.LH (underlying form). Are
speakers of Tianjin confused with these two phrases? The same question goes
to the output L.HL of (2): are speakers of this dialect confused with this
phrase with the existing sequence L.HL?

Another question, what are outputs of the sequences B.BH and HB.B? Do they
undergo OCP effects, and become respectively B.H and H.B?

Thank you for your intellectual insights in advance!

Te-hsin Liu
Paris VIII University

Linguistic Field(s): Phonology

Subject Language(s): Chinese, Mandarin (CHN)

Message 2: Grammaticization with Respect to the Verb

Date: 10-Feb-2005
From: F.K. Agama <>
Subject: Grammaticization with Respect to the Verb

Does anyone have some ideas on this topic, and resources that can used in
exploring the phenomenon of Grammaticization with respect to the verb ''to
be''? I am writing a research paper on how the verb ''to be'' is originally
used as a lexical verb but also grammaticizes as a grammatical item in some
syntactic environments - aspects (that is acting as auxiliary verbs).

Thank you for your concern.

F.K Agama.

Linguistic Field(s): Syntax

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