LINGUIST List 16.620

Wed Mar 02 2005

Qs: Behaviour of 'Say'; Field Methods Resources

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        1.    Joseph T. Farquharson, Behaviour of 'Say' as That-type Complementiser in Jamaican Creole
        2.    Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani, Field Methods Resources for Textbook

Message 1: Behaviour of 'Say' as That-type Complementiser in Jamaican Creole

Date: 02-Mar-2005
From: Joseph T. Farquharson <>
Subject: Behaviour of 'Say' as That-type Complementiser in Jamaican Creole

There have been a few analyses of verbs of speech (talk/say) being used as
complementisers in Creole languages. Some researchers have attributed the
pattern to Niger-Congo languages (e.g. Lefebvre) while others propose that
the structures can be derived from superstrate constructions by appealing
to diachronic syntactic theories. As far as I know, the pattern in Jamaican
Creole (JC) has not received much attention and there are two patterns in
JC which I have not come across in the literature. The existing patterns
are described below:

(1) Bare verbs

The most common treatment of a verb of speech being used as a that-type
complementiser occurs with bare verbs. These have been identified as
psychological verbs, verbs of speech, reporting, etc. The following is a
list of SOME of the verbs which take SE in Jamaican Creole:

a) nuo 'know'
b) biliiv 'believe'
c) prie 'pray'
d) tingk 'think'
e) jriim 'dream'
f) vizhan 'vision'
g) plie 'play'
h) fiil 'feel'
i) dout 'doubt'
j) fried 'be afraid'
k) signal 'signal'
l) taak 'talk'
m) chat 'chat'

(2) Phrasal Verbs

a) Im tel lai se [3rd sg. tell lies THAT]

b) Shi mek naiz se [3rd sg-fem. (made noise) quarrelled THAT]

c) Dem tek uot se [3rd pl. take oath THAT]

(3) Non-psych. Verbs/Sentence-final position

The morpheme SE' appears with other verbs outside of the typical
psychological, speech class and appears in sentence-final position in
interrogative utterances.

a) A wa yu a kuk se [FOC what 2nd-sg. PROG cook se] 'Do you really call
that cooking?'

b) A wa dem a sing se [FOC what 3rd-pl. PROG sing se] 'Do they really
think that is singing?'

Is there anyone on this list who is aware of any Atlantic or Pacific Creole
languages or Niger-Congo languages in which the say/talk-derived
complemetiser behave like (2) and (3) above?

Is there anyone here who thinks that the forms can be derived from
superstrate structures?

Or do (2) and (3) reflect innovation in Jamaican Creole?

Please let me know what's your take on it.

Linguistic Field(s): Syntax

Message 2: Field Methods Resources for Textbook

Date: 01-Mar-2005
From: Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani <>
Subject: Field Methods Resources for Textbook

Dear Linguists/Colleagues,

I should like to seek your valuable assistance for some pieces of
information. The materials I need (all must be in English) are as follows:

1. A bibliography of linguistic research methods/methodology, e.g. J. C.
Chambers, Dialectology.

2. Wordlists (alphabetical as well as thematic) used for collecting dialect
vocabulary or elicitation purposes, e.g. the Swadesh list.

3. English dictionaries or encyclopedias of linguistics, e.g. D. Crystal,
Encyclopedia of Linguistics and Phonetics.

Since I need the above materials for writing an introductory books of
linguistic research methods (for Iranian students), I appreciate your kind
favor if you could send me copies of your own works (as indicated above) to
me at the following address: PO Box 37185-744, Qom, Iran.

I will be very grateful for your kind cooperation and contribution.

Kind regards,
Dr. Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani

Linguistic Field(s): Applied Linguistics

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