* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
LINGUIST List logo Eastern Michigan University Wayne State University *
* People & Organizations * Jobs * Calls & Conferences * Publications * Language Resources * Text & Computer Tools * Teaching & Learning * Mailing Lists * Search *
* *
LINGUIST List 17.928

Mon Mar 27 2006

Review: PhilosophyofLang/Textbooks:Hornsby&Longworth(2005)

Editor for this issue: Lindsay Butler <lindsaylinguistlist.org>


What follows is a review or discussion note contributed to our Book Discussion Forum. We expect discussions to be informal and interactive; and the author of the book discussed is cordially invited to join in. If you are interested in leading a book discussion, look for books announced on LINGUIST as "available for review." Then contact Sheila Dooley at dooleylinguistlist.org.
Directory
        1.    Magda Dumitru, Reading Philosophy of Language


Message 1: Reading Philosophy of Language
Date: 16-Mar-2006
From: Magda Dumitru <magdalena_dumitruyahoo.com>
Subject: Reading Philosophy of Language


Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues/16/16-3034.html

EDITORS: Hornsby, Jennifer; Longworth, Guy
TITLE: Reading Philosophy of Language
SUBTITLE: Selected Texts with Interactive Commentary
SERIES: Reading Philosophy
PUBLISHER: Blackwell Publishing
YEAR: 2005

Magda Dumitru, independent scholar

''Reading Philosophy of Language'' belongs to a successful series of
introductory books to philosophy, offering a refreshing, hands-on
approach to texts written by reputed scholars in the field. As editors
Jennifer Hornsby and Guy Longworth mention in their ''Introduction'',
the volume is intended for the use of students wishing to know what it
means to do philosophy of language: ''Our aim has been to help you
[...] pinpoint your agreements and disagreements with the texts, and
to articulate your reason for agreeing or disagreeing.'' (p. 2). The texts
alluded to belong to a different author each of them, and are
distributed over six chapters. Every chapter includes three texts, each
accompanied by an introduction (bio-bibliographic) and editors'
commentary. The chapters are preceded by a ''Sources and
Acknowledgments'' section and by an ''Introduction'', and are followed
by ''Further Reading'' and an ''Index''.

The topics illustrated by the texts include the relationship between
mind and reference, mind and action, and understanding and
knowledge, as well as the mechanisms of non-literal meaning. The
purpose of this review is not to offer a commentary on the original
texts, but to discuss the job done by the editors in choosing and
analyzing them. In the following, summaries will be given for the
contents of each chapter, as well as a brief critical evaluation.
The ''References'' section includes all the texts discussed in the book.

SUMMARY

Chapter 1 ''Reference and Meaning''
The excerpt from Book III of ''An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding'' by John Locke introduces and discusses the
implications of the thesis according to which words signify ideas that
speaker and hearer share about real objects: ''Words being voluntary
signs, they cannot be voluntary signs imposed by him [the speaker] on
things he knows not.'' (p. 11). In his text ''Of Names'', John Stuart Mill
employs 'names' to refer to both nouns and sentences. Mill proposes
a threefold distinction of names: general vs. individual, concrete vs.
abstract, and connotative vs. non-connotative. General names stand
for ''an indefinite number of things'', while individual names
are ''capable of being truly affirmed [...] of one thing'' (p. 19). A
concrete name ''stands for a thing'', while an abstract name ''stands for
an attribute of a thing'' (p. 20).The third distinction is the most
important one, according to Mill: ''Whenever they [names] have
properly any meaning, the meaning resides not in what they denote,
but in what they connote. The only names of objects which connote
nothing are proper names'' (p. 25). A connotative name ''denotes a
subject, and implies a state'', while a non-connotative name ''signifies
a subject only, or an attribute only'' (p. 22). The text from Gottlob
Frege, ''On Sense and Reference'', discusses the famous 'identity
puzzle'. According to Frege, identity may be either a relation between
objects (e.g. 'Hesperus is Phosphorus'), or a relation between names
(or signs) of objects (e.g. 'Hesperus is Hesperus'). The two example
sentences have the same, unique reference, and yet only the first
sentence is informative (has cognitive value), since to one reference
are associated two different senses. The relation between sense and
reference is the following: ''To the sign there corresponds a definite
sense and to that in turn a definite reference, while to a given
reference (an object) there does not belong only a single sign'' (p. 33).

Chapter 2 ''Speech and Action''
The central issue in this chapter is whether and how accounts of
meaning may fit accounts of language use. The first author discussed
is John Langshaw Austin, with a text on performativity. Although there
are sometimes grammatical criteria that establish whether a verb is
performative (e.g. 1st person singular present indicative active), the
author considers that there may be other ways for evaluating
utterances: felicity conditions. The second author discussed is William
P. Alston, with a text on the relationship between 'meaning'
and 'force': ''the meaning of a linguistic expression is to be elucidated
in terms of the use of that expression'' (p. 64). Considerable
discussion is also targeting the nature of language use and the
distinction illocutionary/perlocutionary. The third text belongs to John
R. Searle who acknowledges, with Austin and against Alston, that
meaning and action ought to be separated. Searle discusses the
notion of ''illocutionary effect'' on the hearer - reminiscent of Grice's
notion of ''speaker meaning''.

Chapter 3 ''Meaning and Truth''
The chapter opens with a text from Donald Davidson where he
introduces the notion of ''radical interpretation'' - which is to be
discussed ''without essential use of such linguistic concepts as
meaning, interpretation, synonymy, and the like'' (p. 96). A well-known
adage of Davidson's is that ''meaning is truth-conditions'': ''[...]
assuming translation, Tarski was able to define truth; the present idea
is to take truth as basic and to extract an account of translation or
interpretation'' (p. 101). The following text belongs to Scott Soames,
who argues against a relation between meaning-facts and speakers'
semantic competence: ''knowledge of truth conditions [...] is neither
necessary nor sufficient for understanding a language'' (p. 118). The
last text belongs to Crispin Wright, who maintains that there should be
a closer connection between linguistic competence and Semantic
theory: semantic properties of words and sentences ''must be
grounded in speakers' intentions''. The chapter closes with an
appendix offering an account of Tarski's theory of truth.

Chapter 4 ''Knowledge of Language''
The main issue discussed in this chapter is whether competence is a
kind of knowledge or a practical ability. The excerpt from Noam
Chomsky tackles this issue by establishing an innate, universal status
of language knowledge: tacit knowledge, as part of the ''universal
grammar''. Therefore language knowledge cannot be a practical
ability; the use of knowledge belongs to ''performance'', while innate
knowledge belongs to ''competence''. From Michael Dummett a text
was chosen which qualifies knowledge of language as ''implicit'',
intermediate between knowledge of facts and practical ability: ''There
is no gap between knowing what it is to speak Spanish and knowing
how to do so'' (p. 174). Welcome is also a discussion of two major
views in philosophy of language: language viewed as a code (before
Frege) and language as belonging to specific theories of meaning (in
the analytical tradition). The last text is due to John Campbell, who
embraces a ''robust view'' (which he calls ''cognitivism'') on language
knowledge, considered to be ordinary knowledge. Understanding is
not to be dissociated from structure perception: ''the knowledge
constitutive of understanding relates primarily to words and their
composition into sentences'' (p. 197).

Chapter 5 ''Meaning and Compositionality''
The main question put in this chapter is whether a compositional view
on meaning is necessary for speakers' understanding of novel
sentences. The first author discussed is Paul Horwich, who embraces
a deflationary view on compositionality: ''Just as being water consists
in being made of H2O, and just as redness consists in reflecting
certain wavelengths of light, so the meaning property of 'dogs bark'
consists in its construction property'' (p. 219). Semantic properties of
words are not given in terms of truth-conditions, but by stating their
meanings; again, compositionality is related to understanding. James
Higginbotham's views in the text chosen are close to those expressed
in the texts chosen from Chomsky and Davidson: semantic knowledge
resides in tacit knowledge of a truth-theory by competent speakers.
The text from Paul Pietroski argues against Horwich's account of
meaning: ''[...] it doesn't follow that if you can associate each sentence
of English with its meaning, you thereby understand English'' (p. 235).
Pietroski maintains that a theory of meaning should be able to explain
crosslinguistic generalizations, as well as the semantics of
determiners, quantifiers and semantic relations.

Chapter 6 ''Non-literal Meaning''
Merrie Bergmann's text offers ''a theoretical account of the assertive
use of metaphor'' (p. 252). She takes salience to be the landmark of
metaphorical use: content is a ''direct function of salient characteristics
[...] of the expression'' (p. 254). The metaphorical meaning of words
and sentences is contained in their literal meaning, hence metaphor is
context dependent. In his text, Martin Davies compares approaches to
metaphor by Black and Davidson; he agrees with Black that ''we lack
an adequate account of metaphorical thought'' (Black 1979, p. 192),
but also with Davidson's view that ''what the metaphor prompts or
inspires is not entirely, or even at all, recognition of some truth or fact''
(Davidson p. 253). The last author discussed, Kent Bach, supports a
similar view of non-literality, namely that it must be a question of use.
He further introduces the notion of ''impliciture'', present in sentences
like ''Rich and Ann are engaged'' (impliciture: 'presumably to each
other'). Bach thinks that sentence non-literality is a pervasive
phenomenon, and defines implicitures as involving ''an unexpressed
qualification on what is said'' (p. 291).

CRITICAL EVALUATION

''Reading Philosophy of Language'' is an excellent guide for students
of Philosophy of Language of all levels, although some familiarity is
assumed with certain concepts - 'truth', for instance, is used in the first
chapter (the section on Frege), but discussed later, in the third. The
texts are well-chosen, from a variety of sources (including radio
performances), and are arranged both thematically and
chronologically. The ''Reading Philosophy'' series has no pretense to
exhaustivity, which may explain why landmark names such as Russel,
Wittgenstein, and Quine are only briefly mentioned. Nevertheless, the
goal of the book is served well by having a wide array of authors
discussed, from 'sacred monsters' of Linguistic Semantics (Frege,
Austin, Searle, Davidson, Chomsky) to famous philosophers (Locke,
Mill, Dummett) and contemporary scholars (Alston, Soames, Wright,
Higginbotham, Campbell, Horwich, Pietroski, Bergmann, Davies,
Bach). Several authors make reference to other authors' texts, also
included in the anthology (e.g. Davies refers to
Bergmann); 'intertextuality' is also encouraged by some of the editors'
comments, like those in the first chapter, for instance, where theses by
Mill are compared to those by Frege and Locke. Interactivity is
enhanced when editors give specific assignments in their commentary
sections to the readers of the volume, asking them to form an opinion
and argue for it. Commentary sections are well structured and
detailed, although, at times, somewhat uneven - the commentary to
Davidson, for example, is particularly clear, while the commentary to
Chomsky is rather cursory, and the one to Dummett is essentially a
summary.

Although people interested in either Philosophy or Linguistics may use
the book, the main vocabulary used by editors is the one current in
Philosophy of Language; only the averted reader will know, for
instance, that 'meaning' and 'use' are studied by Semantics and
Pragmatics, respectively. While a unification of the vocabularies
proper to the two disciplines may not feasible, or even desirable, brief
commentaries by editors on their interplay would have been a
welcome addition.

Care was taken by editors to distinguish their notes from those
provided by authors; for the sake of clarity, explanations are
sometimes given in the very body of the commentary sections (e.g. the
meaning of 'idiolect', p. 223). However, at other times, footnotes would
be required, but are not offered (e.g. one may not know that 'ce'
and 'être' are French words for 'this' and 'to be' respectively).

There are occasional style oversights, as in ''[...] it includes definite
descriptions along with proper names proper.'' (p. 30), although typos
seem to be a greater problem - ''his work in political and moral and
philosophy'' instead of ''his work in political and moral philosophy'' (p.
17); ''becalled'' instead of ''be called'' (p. 68); ''1'' instead of ''I'' (p.
47); ''do do'' instead of ''do'' (p. 57); ''is distinct from he says'' instead
of ''is distinct from what he says'' (p. 198); ''near x a t'' instead of ''near
x at t'' (p. 304). Other typos are due exclusively to technical editing -
misalignments like those on pp. 150, 206, 231, 270. All the
shortcomings mentioned are however very small indeed; the great
merit of the volume remains - that of inciting readers to make
connections between the texts included, far beyond those offered in
the commentaries, that may lead them to original and surprising
conclusions.

REFERENCES

Alston, W. P. (1963) Meaning and Use. Philosophical Quarterly 13,
pp. 107-124.

Austin, J. L. (1979) Performative Utterances. Philosophical Papers,
3rd edn., pp. 234-252, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Bach, K. (2001) Speaking Loosely: Sentence Non-literality. Figurative
Language, ed. by P. French and H. K. Wettstein, Midwest Studies in
Philosophy XXV, pp. 249-263, Oxford, Blackwell.

Bergmann, M. (1982) Metaphorical Assertions. Philosophical Review
91, pp. 229-245.

Campbell, J. (1982) Knowledge and Understanding. Philosophical
Quarterly 32, pp. 17-29.

Chomsky, N. (1986) Knowledge of Language as a Focus of Inquiry.
Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use, pp. 1-14,
Westport, CT, Praeger.

Davidson, D. (1973) Radical Interpretation. Dialectica 27, pp. 313-328,
Oxford.

Davies, M. (1983) Idiom and Metaphor. Proceedings of the Aristotelian
Society 83, pp. 67-86.

Dummett, M. (1993) What Do I Know When I Know a Language? The
Seas of Language, pp. 94-105, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Frege, G. (1980) On Sense and Reference Translations from the
Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege, 3rd edn., ed. by P. Geach
and M. Black, pp. 56-78, Oxford, Blackwell.

Higginbotham, J. (1999) A Perspective on Truth and Meaning. The
Philosophy of Donald Davidson, XXVII, pp. 671-686, Illinois, IL, Open
Court.

Horwich, P. (1998) The Composition of Meanings. Meaning, pp. 154-
183, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Locke, J. (1690) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Book
III, Ch.1, secs. 1-4 and Ch.2, secs. 2 and 4-8.

Mill, J. S. (1865) System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, Vol. I,
Book 1, Ch. 2, Of Names.

Pietroski, P. (2000) The Undeflated Domain of Semantics. Sats: The
Nordic Journal of Philosophy 1, pp. 161-176.

Searle, J. R. (1969) Meaning. Speech Acts (Section 2.6), pp. 42-50,
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Soames, S. (1989) Semantics and Semantic Competence.
Philosophical Perspectives 3, pp. 575-596.

Wright, C. (1987) Theories of Meaning and Speakers. Realism,
Meaning, and Truth, pp. 204-238, Oxford, Blackwell.

ABOUT THE REVIEWER


Magda Dumitru is interested in topics of Cognitive Science and the
Philosophy of Language, such as definiteness, genericity, plurality,
tense, and aspect.

This Year the LINGUIST List hopes to raise $52,932. This money will go to help keep the 
List running by supporting all of our Student Editors for the coming year.

See below for donation instructions, and don't forget to check out our Fund Drive 2006 
LINGUIST List Cruise for some Fund Drive fun!

http://linguistlist.org/cruise.html 

There are many ways to donate to LINGUIST!

You can donate right now using our secure credit card form.

Alternatively you can also pledge right now and pay later.

For all information on donating and pledging, including information on how to donate by 
check, money order, or wire transfer, please visit:

http://linguistlist.org/donate.html

The LINGUIST List is under the umbrella of Eastern Michigan University and as such can 
receive donations through the EMU Foundation, which is a registered 501(c) Non Profit 
organization. Our Federal Tax number is 38-6005986. These donations can be offset against 
your federal and sometimes your state tax return (U.S. tax payers only). For more 
information visit the IRS Web-Site, or contact your financial advisor.

Many companies also offer a gift matching program, such that they will match any gift 
you make to a non-profit organization. Normally this entails your contacting your human 
resources department and sending us a form that the EMU Foundation fills in and returns 
to your employer. This is generally a simple administrative procedure that doubles the 
value of your gift to LINGUIST, without costing you an extra penny. Please take a moment 
to check if your company operates such a program.

Thank you very much for your support of LINGUIST!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

We would like to thank all of the publishers and subscribers who
donated prizes for this year's Fund Drive games, puzzles, and 
competitions.

Publisher Prize Donors: 
Blackwell 
Cascadilla Press 
Continuum 
Estudios de Sociolingüística 
John Benjamins 
The Linguistic Association of Finland 
Multilingual Matters 
MultiLingual magazine 
PORTA LINGUARUM 
Speculative Grammarian 
Springer 
The Surrey Morphology Group 
 
Subscriber Prize Donors:
 
Paul G. Chapin 
Katherine Chen 
Madalena Cruz-Ferreira 
Dr. Gabriel Dorta 
Suzette Haden Elgin 
Gang Gu 
Elly van Gelderen 
Sara Laviosa 
Carol Myers-Scotton 
Loraine K. Obler, Ph.D 
Ana María Ortega and María Luisa Pérez 
Pernille Pennington 
Claus Pusch 
Michael Swan 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



The LINGUIST List Hall of Fame

ANGELS ($1000 and over)

Arnold Zwicky 

	
MAINSTAYS ($100 to $1000)
		
A. Henderson, S. Moran, G. Stamm 
Andrea Levitt 
Andrew Carnie 
Anita Fetzer 
Antonella Sorace 
Arienne M. Dwyer 
Aygul Fitton-Brown 
Barbara H Partee 
Bernadine W. Raiskums 
Billy Clark 
CaroLyn Green Hartnett 
Cecile McKee 
Cinzia Russi 
Cynthia Tia Linn Johnson 
D Terence Langendoen 
Danny Moates 
Daria Suk 
David Bowie 
Edward Garrett 
Ellen Woolford and John McCarthy 
elly van gelderen 
Ernest McCarus 
Frances Trix 
Geoff Nathan and Margaret Winters 
Gerardo Lorenzino 
Heike Behrens 
Helen Aristar-Dry & Anthony Aristar 
Jeff Good 
Jeff Siegel 
John Lawler 
John Nerbonne 
Julie Auger 
Justine Cassell 
Karen Davis 
Karen Milligan 
Katy Carlson 
Kemp Williams 
Keren Rice 
Kristy Beers Fägersten 
Laura Callahan 
Line Mikkelsen 
Manuela Noske 
Margaret Speas 
Michael Silverstein 
Michael Swan 
Monica Macaulay and Joe Salmons 
Neil Olsen 
Pius ten Hacken 
Revue Romane 
Rochelle Lieber 
Sally McConnell-Ginet 
Shanley Allen 
Shirley Silver 
Stefan Th. Gries 
University of Pennsylvania Linguistics Club 
Ute Römer 
Wayles Browne 
Wendy Wilkins 
Zenzi Griffin 

- Plus 6 anonymous donors

SUPPORTERS ($50 to $100)

Andrea C. Schalley
Anja Wanner
Carol A. Klee
Catherine Anderson
Christine Gunlogson
Claude Mauk
Claus D. Pusch
Clyde Hankey
Deborah Anderson
Don Rubin
Eduardo Urios-Aparisi
Eric Haeberli
Eva Schultze-Berndt
Francisco Dubert
Frauke Zeller
Gail Stygall
Georgetown University - Graduate Student Linguistics Association
Heidi Harley
Henrik Jørgensen
Hortènsia Curell
Ingrid Piller
Irina Temnikova
Jie Zhang
Jila Ghomeshi
Joaquim Barbosa
Job M. van Zuijlen
Johanna Laakso
Josep M. Fontana and Louise McNally
Josep Quer
Joybrato Mukherjee
Judith Meinschaefer
Judy Reilly
Kate Paesani
Katherine Appleby
Kathleen M. Ward
Larry LaFond
Laura Downing
Laurie Zaring
Lee Fullerton
Linnaea Stockall
Lisa Galvin
Ljiljana Progovac
Luis Vicente
Maite Taboada
Margaret Dunham
Mary Zdrojkowski
Marya Teutsch-Dwyer
Michael Becker
Michael Cahill
Naomi Fox
Nicole Dehe
Nobuko Koyama-Murakami
Oliver Stegen
PAUL JUSTICE
Rick Nouwen
Robert Hagiwara
Robert Williams
Roberta D'Alessandro
Roderick A. Jacobs
Scott McGinnis
Seizi Iwata
Shamila Naidoo
Stanley Dubinsky
Student Linguistics Asso, the Ohio State University
Susan Fiksdal
Susan Windisch Brown
Susanne Gahl
Theresa Biberauer
Veronika Koller
Virginia LoCastro
Wim Vandenbussche
Wolfgang J. Meyer
Yael Sharvit
Yoonjung Kang

- Plus 5 anonymous donors
	
DONORS (Up to $50)

Adam Buchwald 
Albert Ortmann 
Amina Mettouchi 
Anja Steinlen 
Ann Sawyer 
Anne-Michelle Tessier 
Bonny Sands 
Brook Danielle Lillehaugen 
Catharine Vollmer 
Catherine Fortin 
Chris Sams 
Christel de Bruijn 
Christopher Becker 
Dimitrios Ntelitheos 
Donald F. Reindl 
Eileen Smith 
Elisabeth COTTIER  FÁBIÁN 
Erik Willis 
Fay Wouk 
Harry Feldman 
Heike Zinsmeister 
Helen Stickney 
Jacques Jayez 
Janice Boynton 
Jean-Marc Dewaele 
Jesse Mortelmans 
John Beavers 
Josep Alba 
Judith Pine 
Judith Tonhauser 
Karl Reinhardt 
Kat Dziwirek 
Koscielecki Marek 
Levinson 
Linda Apse 
Lotus Goldberg 
Maher Awad 
Marek Koscielecki 
Martin Warin 
Mayrene Bentley 
Michael Maxwell 
Miguel Ayerbe 
Mike Matloff 
Mohammad Haji-Abdolhosseini 
Mohammad Jaber 
Olga Gurevich 
Pamela Jordan 
Peter Slomanson 
Pierre Francois Cintas 
Rachel Fournier 
Raffaella Zanuttini and Bob Frank 
Sandra W. Smith 
Sherril Condon 
Shih-Jen Huang 
Shlomo Izre'el 
Stefan Dollinger 
Stefan Frisch 
Susan D Fischer 
Tamina Stephenson 
Theres Grueter 
V J Fedson 
Walcir Cardoso 
Will Fitzgerald 
Yosuke Sato 
Yuri & Mio Backhaus 

- Plus 7 anonymous donors

******************************************************

MAJOR SUPPORTING PUBLISHERS
  
Blackwell Publishing 
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com 
Cambridge University Press 
http://us.cambridge.org 
Cascadilla Press 
http://www.cascadilla.com/ 
Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd 
http://www.continuumbooks.com 
Edinburgh University Press 
http://www.eup.ed.ac.uk/ 
European Language Resources Association 
http://www.elda.org/sommaire.php 
Georgetown University Press 
http://www.press.georgetown.edu 
Hodder Arnold 
http://www.hoddereducation.co.uk 
John Benjamins 
http://www.benjamins.com/ 
http://www.benjamins.nl/ 
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 
http://www.erlbaum.com/ 
Lincom GmbH 
http://www.lincom.at 
www.lincom.at 
MIT Press 
http://mitpress.mit.edu/ 
Mouton de Gruyter 
http://www.mouton-publishers.com 
Multilingual Matters 
http://www.multilingual-matters.com/ 
Oxford University Press 
http://www.oup.com/us 
http://www.oup.co.uk 
Palgrave Macmillan 
http://www.palgrave.com 
Rodopi 
http://www.rodopi.nl/ 
Springer 
http://www.springeronline.com 


OTHER SUPPORTING PUBLISHERS
Anthropological Linguistics 
http://www.indiana.edu/~anthling/ 
CSLI Publications 
http://cslipublications.stanford.edu/ 
Graduate Linguistic Students' Assoc.   Umass 
http://glsa.hypermart.net/ 
International Pragmatics Assoc. 
http://ipra-www.uia.ac.be/ipra/ 
Kingston Press Ltd 
http://www.kingstonpress.com/ 
Linguistic Assoc. of Finland 
http://www.ling.helsinki.fi/sky/ 
MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 
http://web.mit.edu/mitwpl/ 
Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics / Landelijke 
http://www.lotpublications.nl/ 
Pacific Linguistics 
http://pacling.anu.edu.au/ 
SIL International 
http://www.ethnologue.com/bookstore.asp 
St. Jerome Publishing Ltd. 
http://www.stjerome.co.uk 
Utrecht institute of Linguistics 
http://www-uilots.let.uu.nl/

******************************************************

INSTITUTIONS

Aptima, Inc. 
Arizona State University 
asdf 
Bilkent University 
Birkbeck, University of London 
Bucknell University 
CACI International Inc. 
City University of Hong Kong 
Concordia University 
DarthDex 
Dictaphone 
Dublin City University 
EML Research gGmbH 
European Academy Bozen/Bolzano 
European Bioinformatics Institute 
European Science Foundation ESF 
Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc. 
Gallaudet University 
Georgetown University 
H5 Technologies 
Harvard University Institute of English Language 
Janya Inc. 
Language Analysis Systems, Inc. 
McGill University 
Michigan State University 
Microsoft Corporation 
National Security Agency 
National Tsing Hua University 
North-West University 
Northeastern Illinois University 
Northwestern University 
OFAI - Austrian Research Inst. for AI 
Priberam Informática 
Rozetta 
Simon Fraser University 
Stanford University 
SVOX AG 
Swarthmore College 
SYSTRAN Software Inc. 
Szanca Solutions, Inc. 
Thomson Legal & Regulatory 
Tufts University 
UCLA 
United Arab Emirates University 
Universitaet Konstanz 
Universitaet Leipzig 
University of Alberta 
University of British Columbia 
University of Calgary 
University of Cambridge 
University of Chicago 
University of Cincinnati 
University of Cyprus 
University of Edinburgh 
University of Florida 
University of Fribourg, Suisse 
University of Goettingen 
University of Hamburg 
University of Heidelberg 
University of Helsinki 
University of Illinois 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 
University of Konstanz 
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 
University of Leipzig 
University of Maryland 
University of Maryland, College Park 
University of Melbourne 
University of Michigan 
University of Oregon 
University of Pittsburgh 
University of Potsdam 
University of Reading 
University of Rochester 
University of Southampton 
University of Southern Denmark 
University of Texas at Austin 
University of Victoria 
Universität Tübingen 
Université de Neuchâtel 
Université du Québec à Montréal 
Voice Signal Technologies 
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam








Respond to list|Read more issues|LINGUIST home page|Top of issue




Please report any bad links or misclassified data

LINGUIST Homepage | Read LINGUIST | Contact us

NSF Logo

While the LINGUIST List makes every effort to ensure the linguistic relevance of sites listed
on its pages, it cannot vouch for their contents.