From: Svitlana Budzhak-Jones <budzhakjonesyahoo.com>
Subject: Speech Delay in Multilingual Environment
Query for this summary posted in LINGUIST Issue:
Regarding Query: http://linguistlist.org/issues/18/18-895.html#1
Once more, I would like to thank all of you who took time to respond to my
inquiry. THANK YOU!!! I appreciate your time, kindness, and advice.
At submitting my inquiry I hoped for one or two responses. At the end I
received a lot more than expected. I compiled the suggested reference into
a single list (some are still with web links, and some helpful remarks). It
is a very impressive literature list. I hope it will help other people who
are interested in the similar problem.
To summarize the research: There are two schools of thought. The older one
argues that the multilingual environment may cause speech delay in young
children. The newer one refutes these claims and argues that raising
children in multilingual environment does not cause any speech delays, but
in fact, benefits the child's development. So, if there are young children
with apparent speech delay, it is due to some other factors (but not to
Here is the list:
CHILD’S SPEECH DELAY REFERENCES
Abu-Rabia, S. & L.S. Siegel (2002) Reading, Syntactic, Orthographic, and
Working Memory Skills of Bilingual Arabic-English Speaking Canadian
Children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 31 (6): 661-678.
Ball, M. J. ( 2005) Clinical Sociolinguistics. Blackwell Publishing
Challenging Case: Cultural and Linguistic Determinants in the Diagnosis and
Management of Development Delay in a Four Year Old. In Developmental and
Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol.23, No.5, October 2002. pp. 371-376
Chandler Yeo, Helen, Susan Rickard Liow & Anthea Frase Gupta. (1994).
Specific language disorders in Singaporean children: four case studies.
Singapore Journal of Education 114:2, pp. 1-10.
Chavda, Usha et al. (2000). Important issues in the Care and Evaluation of
Bilingual /Multilingual Children. International Pediatrics, Vol.18, No.1,
pp 8-13. (http://int-pediatrics.org/PDF/Volume_18/18_1/8_13ip 03_WEB.pdf)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy (19:3), 1 October 2003:
Mahon M., Crutchley A., Quinn T. New directions in the assessment of
Martin D., Krishnamurthy R., Bhardwaj M., Charles R. Language change in
young Panjabi/English children: implications for bilingual language
Pert S., Letts C. Developing an expressive language assessment for children
in Rochdale with a Pakistani heritage background, pp. 267-289(23)
Seeff-Gabriel B. Phonological processing: a platform for assisting
second-language learners with English spelling, pp. 291-310(20)
Howell P., Davis S., Au-Yeung J. Syntactic development in fluent
children, children who stutter, and children who have English as an
additional language, pp. 311-337(27)
Salameh E-K., Nettelbladt U., Norlin K. Assessing phonologies in
bilingual Swedish-Arabic children with and without language impairment, pp.
Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena. (2006). Three is a Crowd? Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, J. (2000) Language Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the
Crossfire. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Duncan, D. (1989) Working with Bilingual Language Disability. Chapman and
Feldman (2005). Evaluation and Management of Language and Speech Disorders
in Preschool Children. Pediatrics in Review. 26: 131-142.
Frase Gupta, Anthea and Helen Chandler. (1993). Pediatric speech and
language therapy referral in Singapore: implications for multilingual
language disability. European Journal of Disorders of Communication 28, pp.
Frase Gupta, Anthea. (1994). Language disorder -- is monolingualism
necessary? The Bilingual Family Newsletter 11:4.
Genesee, F. (2003) Bilingualism and language impairment. In R.D. Kent (Ed.)
MIT Encyclopedia of Communication Disorders. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 275-278.
Genesee, F., Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004). Dual Language Development and
Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning.
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Goldstein, B. (Ed.). (2004). Bilingual Language Development and Disorders
in Spanish-English Speakers. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes
Harris, Margaret. 1992 (1993, 1996). Language experience and early
language development; from input to uptake. Psychology Press, Sussex.
Hеkansson, G., E-K. Salameh & U. Nettelbladt (2003) Measuring Language
Development in Bilingual Children: Swedish-Arabic Children with and without
Language Impairment. Linguistics 41(2): 255-288
Holm A., Dodd B. (1999) An intervention case study of a bilingual child
with phonological disorder. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 1 June
1999, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 139-158(20) (concerns English-Punjabi)
Hua, Zhu and Barbara Dodd, eds. Phonological development and disorders in
children : a multilingual perspective. Multilingual Matters, 2006.
Jordaan, H., Shaw-Ridley, G., Serfontein, J., & Orelowitz, K. (2001).
Cognitive and liguistic profiles of specific language impairment and
semantic-pragmatic disorder in bilinguals. Folia Phoniatrica et
Logopaedica, 53, 153-165.
Kay-Raining Bird, E., Cleave, P., Trudeau, N., Thordardottir, E., Sutton,
A., & Thorpe, A. (2005). The language abilities of bilingual children with
Down Syndrome. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14, 187-199.
Klee, T et al. (2004) Utterance Length and Lexical Diversity in
Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment.
JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH. 47; 6, pp.1396-1410.
Kohnert, K. et al (2005) Intervention With Linguistically Diverse Preschool
Children: A Focus on Developing Home Language(s). Language, Speech, and
Hearing Services in Schools. 36:3 pp 251-263.
Laing, S. Kahmi, A.(2003) Alternative Assessment of Language and Literacy
in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse population. Language, Speech and
Hearing Services in Schools. Vol 34, pp. 44-55.
Martin, D., Colesby,C. and Jhamat, K. (1997) Phonological awareness in
Panjabi/English children with phonological difficulties. Child Language
Teaching and Therapy 13,1,59-72
Meisel, J. M. (1989). Early differentiation of languages in bilingual
children. In K. Hyltenstam and L. K. Obler (Eds.), Bilingualism Across the
Lifespan: Aspects of Acquisition, Maturity, and Loss. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
Meisel, J. (2004). The bilingual child. In T.J. Bhatia and Richie (Eds.),
The Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 91-113). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Ng and Wigglesworth (upcoming). Bilingualism: An advanced resource book.
Paradis, J. (to appear). Bilingual Children with Special Language
Impairment: Theoretical and Aplied Issues. Applied
Paradis, J. (2005) Grammatical Morphology in Children Learning English as a
Second Language: Implications of Similarities With Specific Language
Impairment . Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 36:3 pp. 172-?
Paradis, J. & M. Crago (2000) Tense and temporality: a comparison between
children learning a second language and children with SLI. Journal of
Speech Language and Hearing Research 43: 834–847.
Paradis, J., Crago, M., Genesee, F., & Rice, M. (2003). French- English
bilingual children with SLI: How do they compare with their monolingual
peers? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 113-127.
Paradis, J. & Crago M (in press) Comparing L2 and SLI grammars in child
French: Focus on DP. In J. Paradis & P. Prйvost (eds) The Acquisition of
French in Different Contexts: Focus on Functional Categories. Amsterdam:
Ray, J. (2002) Treating Phonological Disorders in a Multilingual Child: A
Case Study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. Vol 11,
pp.305-315 (concerns English, Hindi, Gujurati)
Restrepo, M. A., & Kruth, K. (2000). Grammatical characteristics of a
Spanish-English bilingual child with SLI. Communication Disorders
Quarterly, 21, 66-76.
Salameh et al (2004) Developmental perspectives on bilingual Swedish-Arabic
children with and without language impairment: a longitudinal study. IJLCD
Shriberg et al. (1999) Prevalence of Speech Delay in 6-Year-Old Children
and Comorbidity With Language. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing
Research. 42: 1461-1481
So L.K.H., Leung C-S.S. (2004). A phonological screening tool for
Cantonese-speaking children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 1
February 2004, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 75-86(12)
Stow, C. and Dodd, B. (2003). Providing an equitable service to bilingual
children in the UK: a review. IJLCD 38:4
Tse, S.K. et al (2005). Is the expressive vocabulary of young Cantonese
speakers noun or verb dominated? Early Child Development and Care, 175:3,
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