LINGUIST List 2.780

Tue 12 Nov 1991

Disc: Clicks and R-Linking

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  1. Peter Ladefoged, clicks
  2. Lars Henrik Mathiesen, R-Linking
  3. Laurie Bauer, a apple

Message 1: clicks

Date: Tue, 12 Nov 91 08:02 PST
From: Peter Ladefoged <IDU0PNLUCLAMVS.bitnet>
Subject: clicks
On clicks
The only use of clicks I know of outside Africa is reported
by Ken Hale and David Nash in a 1987 Australian Linguistics
Society Paper "Lardil and Damin phonotactics." Damin is a
derivative of Lardil, much like a language game, It is learned
by adults and is not a first language.
The odd thing about clicks is the ease with which they are borrowed.
They occur in at least three different language families in
~AAfrica: Khoisan (e.g. !Xo), Bantu (e.g. Zulu, Xhosa) and Cushitic
(Dahalo, spoken in Kenya), as well as in Sandawe and Hadza (spoken
in East Africa) which may be Khoisan - nobody really knows. (We'll
have to wait for a UCLA thesis by Bonny Sands to get more answers).
Peter Ladefoged (idu0pnluclamvs.bitnet)
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Message 2: R-Linking

Date: Thu, 7 Nov 91 20:39:59 +0100
From: Lars Henrik Mathiesen <>
Subject: R-Linking
The last round of the discussion, as I understood it:
	Question: What is ``linking R''.
	Answer (Stampe/Natural Phonology): It's an underlying R that
	is deleted in most positions.
	Objection (Manaster-Ramer): That doesn't explain why it is
	found only in dialects/languages that has lost R's in those
	positions. Natural Phonology owes us that explanation.
That's where I disagree. Given the interpretation as underlying R,
``linking R'' is different from other cases of R-deletion only in a
diachronic sense: it appears in words that didn't have an R before.
It is this diachronic emergence in some words of an R that is realized
in only a few positions that must be explained --- specifically, why
that R emerges only in languages where other words already have it.
To me, the phenomenon in English seems to be a classical case of
analogy: The distinction between underlying V(:) and Vr is mostly
lost, and the underlying R spreads in the lexicon. And I can't see
that Natural Phonology has to explain why analogical spread occurs
only when there is something to spread in the first place.
(I'm not saying that there is nothing to explain about analogical
processes, just that it's not NP's job.)
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Message 3: a apple

Date: Thu, 07 Nov 1991 16:14:02 EST
From: Laurie Bauer <>
Subject: a apple
Lass reports somewhere that things like 'a apple' are heard in South African
English, and they are certainly heard in New Zealand. It is my impression that
they are usually accompanied by a glottal stop: a ?apple, but I don't know if
this is always the case. Similarly, we find the apple with the same form of
_the_ as we find in 'the banana', i.e. schwa vowel for both.
Laurie Bauer
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