LINGUIST List 23.4180|
Mon Oct 08 2012
Review: Cognitive Science; Language Acquisition: Tyler (2012)
Editor for this issue: Joseph Salmons
From: Eve Higby <evehigbyyahoo.com>
Subject: Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Learning
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Careful reviewer; did revisions quickly and efficiently.
Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues/23/23-1950.html
AUTHOR: Andrea Tyler
TITLE: Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Learning
SUBTITLE: Theoretical Basics and Experimental Evidence
Eve Higby, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, The Graduate Center
of the City University of New York
Andrea Tyler's book, "Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Learning" offers
readers, and especially teachers, an exciting new way of viewing language and
language learning. This is one of the first texts to apply concepts from
Cognitive Linguistics (CL) to second language learning and it does so by
offering a detailed description of certain relevant concepts in CL, followed by
an analysis of three aspects of the English language that are notoriously
difficult to teach (and learn): modal verbs, prepositions, and dative
alternations. The information is backed up by experimental results showing the
positive effects of CL-based instruction.
The book consists of two main parts: an introduction to concepts in Cognitive
Linguistics and an in-depth analysis of certain aspects of English syntax from a
CL perspective. Chapters 1-2 comprise the first section and chapters 3-6 make up
the second section.
The introduction, Chapter 1, gives a broad overview of several Cognitive
Linguistics concepts and contrasts them with ideas that are prevalent in the
field of foreign language education (e.g., presenting grammatical constructs as
meaningful linguistic units rather than the traditional view that meaning is
mapped onto grammar through lexical items). The contrast is helpful as most of
the CL concepts will be quite novel to traditionally trained ESL teachers.
However, the result of this flurry of new concepts is a bit of confusion at the
end of this chapter as many of the terms have yet to be defined.
Chapter 2 is an excellent introduction to several ideas in CL regarding how
language is conceptualized. These topics are neatly organized into sub-sections
and include: a usage-based approach to language, situated communication and
construal, frequency, embodiment, Conceptual Metaphor Theory, mental imagery and
spatial scenes, categorization, prototypes and centrality effects, polysemy, and
schemas. Each topic is described in enough detail for readers to understand the
concept without being overloaded.
In the next chapter, the author builds upon the concepts in Chapter 2 by
demonstrating how they can be applied to second language learning and presenting
experimental research, mostly through effects of instruction studies in L2
classrooms. The chapter summarizes the results of some studies, while presenting
others in more depth. First, the concept of construal is demonstrated in light
of the English article system, countability of nouns, and perfective vs.
imperfective aspect. Second, conceptual metaphors are used to explain idioms,
cross-linguistic differences between English and Spanish for verb states, and
Spanish diminutive suffixes. Next, the concept of categorization is used to
explain extended meanings of words, overlapping semantic networks of words, and
the German dative case. Embodiment is introduced as a means for teaching phrasal
verbs, using visual representations, and English manner of motion verbs.
Finally, a usage-based approach to language is shown to underlie aspects of
language such as frequency effects, verb/construction distributions, collexemes,
and the multiple uses of 'like.' The chapter ends with a look at examples of
cross-linguistic influence in second language acquisition.
The fourth chapter is dedicated to the analysis of the English modal verbs
system. Traditionally, modals are taught in groups of functional categories,
which, while seemingly systematic, leaves the language learner with a lot of
unanswered questions, such as why certain modals (e.g., 'could,' 'must') can be
found in multiple functional categories, and why modals that are treated as
synonyms cannot always be used in the same ways (e.g., 'should,' 'must').
Therefore, the author suggests teaching modals using a different approach.
First, she advocates the use of pictorial representations of the meanings of the
modals, of which she provides examples. Second, rather than grouping multiple
modals by function, she suggests grouping modals by form (e.g., the word 'must')
and explaining the relationship between the multiple functions of that form (a
social function and a logical function). Additionally, she demonstrates that the
relationship between modals that have historically been used as present and past
tenses of each other (e.g., 'can/could,' 'will/would,' 'shall/should') can be
shown as stronger/weaker versions of the same semantic concept. Three
experimental investigations are reviewed, two of L2 English students of law and
the other of a group of general advanced L2 learners at an American university,
all of which showed gains by the students in the correct use of modals after a
CL-based instruction of selected modals.
Chapter 5 deals with English prepositions. These are notoriously difficult for
students to learn and for teachers to teach in a systematic way. In fact, Tyler
provides a more complete description of prepositions than any I have seen. Her
model is based on the concept of polysemy networks for words. She states that
all prepositions have a core meaning, which is physical, and that all other uses
of that preposition stem from the core meaning in systematic ways. Three
prepositions are described in detail: 'for,' 'to,' and 'at,' and drawings of
their polysemy networks are included as illustrations.
The last chapter discusses the dative alternation pattern. The dative
alternation consists of ditransitive verbs that are allowed in two different
patterns: the double-object construction and the prepositional dative
construction. For example, the verb 'give' can be used in either 'I gave Maria
the book' or 'I gave the book to Maria.' In this chapter, Tyler attempts to
address a frustratingly difficult question: Why are certain verbs only allowed
in one of the dative constructions (e.g., 'build' is only allowed in
double-object constructions, while 'contribute' is only allowed in prepositional
dative construction), whereas other verbs (e.g., 'give' and 'sing') can go in
either construction? Tyler uses CL analyses of these constructions to explain
what aspect of these verbs causes them to be restricted to certain
constructions. This analysis is also contrasted with Pinker's (1989) treatment
of this subject matter. Despite the large number of examples given, the
information presented in this chapter was not as clear as the others, making the
key distinctions that she makes difficult to grasp.
This book aims to introduce a new approach to grammar for English as a Foreign
Language/English as a Second Language (EFL/ESL) teachers, based on Cognitive
Linguistics, which is a more complete and accurate description than what is
standardly found in EFL textbooks. This approach attempts to account for all
aspects of language use, including those typically considered "exceptions to the
rule" and tries to give a more systematic way of learning certain grammatical
constructions besides rote memorization. The author has done an excellent job of
introducing CL concepts to an audience which is largely unfamiliar with them.
While some of the ideas may appear repetitive, the repetition may be necessary
to really allow these novel approaches to understanding grammar to sink in.
The book's biggest weakness is that it does not make these concepts useful at a
practical level (which, admittedly, is not one of the book's stated aims, but
which must be considered for any book that addresses teaching methods). After
providing a convincing description of language through a Cognitive Linguistics
lens, the interested teacher will be eager to discover how these ideas can be
applied to the classroom. However, the book doesn't quite bridge the necessary
gap. Some of the experimental descriptions lend themselves to replication, but
are not quite detailed enough to give the teacher confidence in how to apply
them in the classroom.
After reading this book, I led a two-part workshop for my teaching staff at a
private ESL institute in New York City. The teachers were highly receptive to
the approach offered by Cognitive Linguistics and most of them were previously
unfamiliar with these concepts. They were intrigued by the claim that CL could
offer an explanation for modals and double-object constructions that didn't
include a list of exceptions. However, the analyses became more and more
difficult for the teachers to comprehend. While the explanation of modal verbs
was favorably received, the explanations of the prepositional structures and the
dative alternation seemed hard for them to grasp. In the end, the feedback from
the teachers was that it opened their eyes to a different way of conceptualizing
language, but until a grammar text comes out that offers a full description and
some focused student practice, trying to implement these ideas in their own
classrooms would not be easy.
It is not just teachers who have to wrap their head around a new way of thinking
about grammar, but also students will be unfamiliar with these concepts and may
have already studied the topic the traditional way. The author acknowledges this
obstacle (p. 128) and suggests that more time may need to be spent on this form
of instruction than a traditional presentation since students are being asked to
think about these concepts in a radically different way from the one in which
they have previously been taught. While CL claims to employ a more cognitively
intuitive way of thinking about language and its use, students presented with
these concepts will likely try to reconcile the new information with the old
"rules" they have previously learned, which well could in the end result in a
bit of confusion for the learner. Two of the teachers on my staff chose to try
one of the concepts I presented (modals and articles) in their classes. Both
said that students were receptive to the presentation, but had few questions.
They seemed to understand the notions, but not apply them with confidence.
Therefore, teachers wishing to engage in a CL-based form of instruction may need
to arm themselves with a large number of examples and to be patient with
students who do not pick up on the ideas right away.
In conclusion, the text presents an exciting introduction of concepts from
Cognitive Linguistics to the field of Applied Linguistics, backed up by a host
of experimental evidence and a thorough analysis of three of the most difficult
concepts for second language learners to acquire. The book fulfills its aims and
is written in a clear, approachable manner with examples at every point, though
the material gets increasingly more esoteric for teachers with less grounding in
theoretical linguistics. As far as a pioneering text of this type is concerned,
it is a valuable introduction to a new approach to teaching grammar. However, I
cannot see too many teachers who would be willing or able to directly apply it
to their own teaching without some practical advice on how to present it or a
supplementary teachers' grammar text that could aid them and the students
through the process of learning to see the grammar in this way. Several of the
teachers in my workshop were interested in reading Tyler's book themselves, and
if a CL-based grammar text were available, I believe some of them would be ready
to try it out. All in all, the book is intriguing and informative and provides a
solid basis for future works in this nascent area of research.
I would like to thank Loraine Obler for her helpful suggestions on this review.
Any shortcomings are the responsibility of the author alone.
Pinker, S. (1989). Learnability and cognition: The acquisition of argument
structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Eve Higby is a doctoral student in the Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences
Department at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York with
eight years' experience as an ESL teacher and school administrator. Her
research interests include bi/multilingualism, second language acquisition,
cross-linguistic influence, language change, and the neural bases of language.
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