LINGUIST List 4.708

Wed 15 Sep 1993

Qs: Phonetics chart, Temporal, Washed, /r/ in English

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Directory

  1. Ted Pedersen, phonetic charts
  2. Varol Akman, The development of children's knowledge of temporal structure
  3. Beth Lee Simon, This car needs washed; these clothes need washed
  4. Gwyn Williams, /r/ in English

Message 1: phonetic charts

Date: Mon, 13 Sep 1993 16:52:33 phonetic charts
From: Ted Pedersen <pedersenseas.smu.edu>
Subject: phonetic charts


Does anyone know where I could find a postscript version of a
phonetics chart? (By phonetics chart I mean one that shows the
bilablial fricatives, velar stops, etc.) Is there an ftp site out
there with such things available?

I am especially interested in charts that have the sounds that appear
in Spanish.

Thanks
Ted

 --
* Ted Pedersen pedersenseas.smu.edu *
* Department of Computer Science and Engineering, *
* Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (214) 768-2126 *
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Message 2: The development of children's knowledge of temporal structure

Date: Mon, 13 Sep 93 18:09:44 +0The development of children's knowledge of temporal structure
From: Varol Akman <akmancs.bilkent.edu.tr>
Subject: The development of children's knowledge of temporal structure

I would greatly appreciate references on the development of time
concepts in children. More specifically, what are the important
research efforts treating the child's acquisition of temporal
*word* meanings?

By the way, I am quite familiar with the following excellent book

 William Friedman
 ABOUT TIME: INVENTING THE FOURTH DIMENSION
 A Bradford Book, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1990)
 ISBN 0-262-06133-3
 Library of Congress BF468.F75 1990

but don't have any idea about how I can contact the author.
(Chapter 6 of this book has a very fine discussion on the child's
discovery of time.) Any pointers?

Thanks in advance,

Varol Akman, Assoc. Prof.
Department of Computer Engineering and Information Science
Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey
Phone: [90] (4) 266-4133 Fax: [90] (4) 266-4126 or -4127
** Effective Jan. 1, 1994, dial (312) instead of (4) above **
email: akmancs.bilkent.edu.tr (preferred)
 akmantrbilun.bitnet
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Message 3: This car needs washed; these clothes need washed

Date: Mon, 13 Sep 93 21:05 CDT
From: Beth Lee Simon <BLSIMONmacc.wisc.edu>
Subject: This car needs washed; these clothes need washed

I'd like to hear from anyone whose native dialect, (chiefly Midland-ish)
includes such sentences as "This car needs washed" and "these clothes
need washed" in daily speech. I'm particularly interested in hearing
from those whose use is pre-1959.

Beth Simon
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Dictionary of American Regional English
blsimonmacc.wisc.edu
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Message 4: /r/ in English

Date: Wed, 15 Sep 1993 15:30:04 /r/ in English
From: Gwyn Williams <gwynipied.tu.ac.th>
Subject: /r/ in English


 I have a query concerning the stability of [r] in various languages.

 Standard Thai has two phonemes /r/ and /l/ which contrast only in
syllable initial position. In normal speech, however, these phonemes in
Bangkok Thai are typically merged to [l], eg., rua > lua

 A result of this merger are homophones, eg., rua > lua
 lua > lua

 In initial clusters both sounds are also typically merged, eg.,

 khrua > khlua
 khlua > klua

 or, more typically, dropped, eg., khrua > khua
 khlua > khua

 Only in the writing system and in careful formal speech is the
distinction maintained. In other dialects of Thai, /r/ has become /h/
initially and has been long lost in clusters.

 In a recent seminar it was asked why /r/ in Thai should be so unstable in
comparison to other consonants in Thai which are comparatively stable
across all dialects. Some asked about English /r/. It is my impression
that English /r/ has been very stable. It does show some relatively minor
variation in different accents. Also, children may substitute [w] for /r/
in initial position.

 However, /r/ in post-vocalic position has undergone more dramatic
changes, ie., in many English accents it has been 'lost' (weakened?) and
'replaced' by a vowel articulation (schwa), but retained in other accents
(well, it's actually rhoticization of the preceding vowel, isn't it?).
This seems to be closest to the situation in Thai.

 I realize this is probably a rather simplistic description. Could someone
provide me with a more adequate one? How was post-vocalic /r/ in Old and
Middle English pronounced? Do any accents of English retain a 'true'
consonantal post-vocalic /r/? Do any accents of English merge initial /r/
and /l/? Has /r/ in English become anything else?

 Post-vocalic /l/ in some English accents has also undergone a similar
'weakening'. I know that in Cockney English and New Zealand English at
least, the 'dark' /l/ has been vocalized.

 Are there parallels in other languages? Universal tendencies?

Sorry for the rather long-winded and confused nature of the question. I'd
be glad for any comments ;-)

Gwyn Williams <gwynipied.tu.ac.th>
Bangkok

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