LINGUIST List 5.1104

Sun 09 Oct 1994

Sum: Black English

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Message 1: summary on "Black English"

Date: Fri, 07 Oct 1994 20:14:21 summary on "Black English"
From: <Ruth.M.Lanouettelawrence.edu>
Subject: summary on "Black English"


Dear Fellow Netters,

 Several weeks ago, I posted a request for information on books
about "Black English." I apologize for taking so long to get this
summary together, but the responses started coming in just as our
term was starting, and it's taken me a long time to get back to
this.

 Before I give the summary, I should point out that at least
two people wrote to comment on the name "Black English." One said
that the person who had coined the term (or got credit for it) now
regrets calling it that, and refers to the dialect as "Urban
English." Another said that people who study the dialect(s) refer
to it/them as "African-American English Vernacular." Other people
used the abbreviation "BEV", by which I assume they mean "Black
English Vernacular." Since I am not an expert in this field, I
cannot comment on these varieties, but can only report the
different labels.

 I would like to thank the following people who responded,
either to suggest books, or to suggest names of people to get in
touch with:

 Phyllis Brown
 Annie Craft-Kincheon
 Danielle Alyce Rome
 Gary Palmer
 Larry Rosenwald
 Dorine S. Houston
 Charles F. (Fritz) Juengling
 Stefan Martin
 Peggy Hashemipour
 Randy Harris
 Mary Bucholtz
 Anne Loring
 Don Churma
 Ed Finegan

The most extensive list was sent by Peggy Hashemipour, who sent a
syllabus for her class on Black English. Her list included quite
a few sources on Pidgeons and Creoles. Since these might be of
interest to people, I have included them here. The following list
includes all of the suggestions I received.

Books

Abraham, Roger D. 1976. Talking Black. (I don't know the
 publisher for this one.)

Baugh, John. 1983. Black Street Speech: It's History, Structure
 and Survival. University of Texas Press.

Burling, Robbins. 1973. English in Black and White. New York:
 Holt, Rinehart, Winston.

Dillard, J.L. 1972. Black English: Its History and Usage in
 the United States. New York: Vintage Press.

Dillard, J.L. 1992. A History of American English. New York:
 Longman Press.

Kochman, (?). 1981. Black and White Styles in Conflict.
 University of Chicago Press.

Smitherman, Geneva. 1977 Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of
 Black America.


What follows is a list of articles arranged under various headings.
All of these were suggested by Peggy Hashemipour:


INTRODUCTORY READINGS ON PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES
DeCamp, D. 1981. "The Study of Pidgin and Creole Languages."
 appears in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. D.
 Hymes, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS
Todd, L. 1990. "Theories of Origin: Pidgins," Pidgins and
 Creoles, 2nd ed.:26-47. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
 Ltd.

Todd, L. 1990. "The Process of Development: From Pidgin to
 Creole," Pidgins and Creoles, 2nd ed.:48-65. London:
 Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.

Dillard, J.L. 1972. "A Sketch of the History of Black English,"
 Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States:
 73-138. New York: Random House.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES
Todd, L. 1984. "English-related Pidgins and Creoles," Modern
 Englishes: Pidgins and Creoles:35-61. Oxford: Basil
 Blackwell.

Hancock, I. 1971. "West Africa and the Atlantic Creoles," appears
 in The English Language in West Africa:91-92. J. Spencer, ed.
 London: Longman Press.

Hancock, I. 1987. "A Preliminary Classification of the Anglophone
 Atlantic Creoles, with Syntactic Data from Thirty-Three
 Representative Dialects," appears in Pidgin and Creole
 Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke.
 G.G. Gilbert, ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Turner, L.D. 1949. "Backgrounds," Africanisms in the Gullah
 Dialect:1-14. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Turner, L.D. 1949. "Syntactical Features," Africanisms in the
 Gullah Dialect:209-231. Chicago: University of Chicago
 Press.

STRUCTURE OF MODERN BLACK ENGLISH
Smitherman, Geneva. 1985. "'It Bees Dat Way Sometime': Sounds
 and Structure of Present-Day Black English," appears in
 Language: Introductory Readings. V.P. Clark, P.A. Eschholz,
 and A.F. Rosa, eds. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Fasold, R.W. and W. Wolfram. 1975. "Some Linguistic Features of
 Negro Dialect," appears in Black American English: Its
 Background and Its in the Schools and in Literature. P.
 Stoller, ed. New York: Delta Publishing Company.

EDUCATION, SOCIETY AND BLACK ENGLISH
Stennis Williams, Shirley. 1987. The Politics of the Black
 Child's Language: A Study of Attitudes in School and Society.
 appears in Ethnicity and Language, volume VI of the Ethnicity
 and Public Policy Series. W.A. VanHorne and T.V. Tonnesen,
 eds. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin System Press.

Labov, W. 1975. "The Logic of Nonstandard English," appears in
 Black American English: Its Background and Its in the Schools
 and in Literature. P. Stoller, ed. New York: Delta
 Publishing Company.

Abrahams, R.D. and G. Gay. 1975. "Talking Black in the
 Classroom," appears in Black American English: Its
 Background and Its in the Schools and in Literature. P.
 Stoller, ed. New York: Delta Publishing Company.

Stoller, P. 1975. "The Case against Black English in the Schools:
 A Brief Review," appears in Black American English: Its
 Background and Its in the Schools and in Literature. P.
 Stoller, ed. New York: Delta Publishing Company.

Baugh, John. 1991. "On Twice as Less: Black English and the
 Performance of Black Students in Mathematics and Science by
 Eleanor Wilson Orr," appears in Language Issues in Literacy
 and Bilingual/Multicultural Education. M. Minami and B.P.
 Kennedy, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review.

ATTITUDES TOWARD BLACK ENGLISH
Tucker, G.R. and W.E. Lambert. 1975. "White and Negro Listeners'
 Reactions to Various American-English Dialects," appears in
 Perspectives on Black English. J.L. Dillard, ed. Paris:
 Mouton Press.

Houston, S.H. 1975. "A Sociolinguistic Consideration of the Black
 English of Children in Northern Florida," appears in
 Perspectives on Black English. J.L. Dillard, ed. Paris:
 Mouton Press.

Hecht, M.L., S. Ribeau, and J.K. Alberts. 1989. "An Afro-American
 Perspective on Interethnic Communication," Communication
 Monographs 56:385-409.

Garner, T. and D.L. Rubin. 1986. "Middle Class Blacks'
 Perceptions of Dialect and Style Shifting: The Case of
 Southern Attorneys," Journal of Language and
 Social Psychology 5.1:33-47.


TEXTS
CAMEROON PIDGIN--Todd, L. 1979. "Tale 1: Trohki an Hohk: Mak
 Man no ehva laf i frehn (Tortoise and Hawk: Let No One Ever
 Laugh at His Friend," Some Day Been Dey: West African Pidgin
 Folktales:18-23. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.

PIDGIN ENGLISH/KRIO SIERRA LEONE--Jones, E. 1971. "Krio: An
 English-based Language of Sierra Leone," appears in The
 English Language in West Africa:91-92. J. Spencer, ed.
 London: Longman Press.

JAMAICAN CREOLE (late 1800s)--D'Costa, J. and B. Lalla. 1989. "
 C. Rampini, Letters from Jamaica," Voices in Exile: Jamaican
 Texts of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Tuscaloosa, AL:
 University of Alabama Press.


AFRICANISMS IN GULLAH--Turner, L.D. 1949. "Gullah Texts,"
 Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect:256-259. Chicago:
 University of Chicago Press.

GULLAH--Turner, L.D. 1949. "Gullah Texts," Africanisms in the
 Gullah Dialect:268-273. Chicago: University of Chicago
 Press.


Again, thanks to everyone who contributed!

Ruth Lanouette
German Department
Lawrence University
Appleton, WI 54911
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