LINGUIST List 5.548

Fri 13 May 1994

Qs: Word & Letter frequencies, Voiceless nasals, Clicks

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  1. , Q:English word frequencies
  2. Lauri Carlson, Letter frequencies in running text for European languages
  3. "Bill, "Voiceless" nasals
  4. "Bill, Clicks in Khoisan, Sandawe-Hadzapi and Zulu-Xhosa

Message 1: Q:English word frequencies

Date: Wed, 11 May 94 11:17:44 +0Q:English word frequencies
From: <ahousenvnet3.vub.ac.be>
Subject: Q:English word frequencies

Hi,

I'm forwarding this request on behalf of a colleague who's not on this
list. Please respond directly to him (jbollenvnet3.vub.ac.be), not to me.
 Alex Housen

**********
"Can anyone tell me where on the net I could find electronic lists of
wordfrequencies and/or association-norms for the english language? I need
it in electronic form because I will be using the list on a computerised
experiment with word-association and semantics.
Some FTP or Gopher adress from where I could download the lists would be
very helpful. You can contact me on the following adress:
jbollenvnet3.vub.ac.be.

Thanks in advance!"

__________________________________________________________________________
+++ Johan Bollen Principia Cybernetica Assistant ++++++++++
+ Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, PO, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium +
+ Phone:+32-2-6412525; Fax:+32-2-6412489; Email: jbollenvnet3.vub.ac.be +
+----> URL(info,bio,pict): http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/infoJB.html <----- +
+++++++++++ Het is een monster, maar ik heb het geschapen. +++++++++++++
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Message 2: Letter frequencies in running text for European languages

Date: Fri, 13 May 94 10:30:40 +0Letter frequencies in running text for European languages
From: Lauri Carlson <lcarlsonling.helsinki.fi>
Subject: Letter frequencies in running text for European languages

Linguists,

Does anyone have information about letter frequencies in running text for
various European languages (English, German, French, Spanish, Swedish,
Danish, Norwegian and Finnish)?

Lauri Carlson
professor of linguistic theory and translation

University of Helsinki
Department of Translation Studies

Office: Mail:
Alokkaankuja 2 PL 94
45130 Kouvola 45131 Kouvola

Phone: Email:
+358 0 797 812 (home) lcarlsonling.helsinki.fi
+358 51 8252 206 (office)

Fax:
+358 0 79 59 61 (home)
+358 51 8252 251 (office)
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Message 3: "Voiceless" nasals

Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 19:49:52 "Voiceless" nasals
From: "Bill <wrandersindiana.edu>
Subject: "Voiceless" nasals

Hello, everyone! Recent investigations into the "consonant mutations"
in Kpelle have led me to an interesting question: are "voiceless" nasals
really voiceless phonologically, or are they aspirated? I remember
seeing somewhere nasals in one of the Southeast Asian languages (Hmong,
I believe) characterized as "aspirated", rather than "voiceless".
Previously the same nasals in the same language had been claimed to be
"voiceless", so I'm wondering if there are any good clues to distinguish
which they are.

 Do "voiceless" nasals ever precipitate the devoicing (but not
 aspiration!) of adjacent segments?
 Do they ever lead to aspiration of adjacent consonants, or "breathy
 voicing" in adjacent vowels?
 Do "voiceless" nasals pattern phonologically with other sonorants or
 with obstruents?
 What references are available either on the "voiceless" nasals, or on
 phonologies of languages that use them (e.g. Hmong, Miao,
 Yi...)?
 Do "voiceless" nasals occur outside of Tibeto-Burman?
 Do they occur outside of Southeast Asia?

Thank you, in advance? Have a great day! Bye.

 Bill Anderson
 wrandersindiana.edu

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Message 4: Clicks in Khoisan, Sandawe-Hadzapi and Zulu-Xhosa

Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 18:24:08 Clicks in Khoisan, Sandawe-Hadzapi and Zulu-Xhosa
From: "Bill <wrandersindiana.edu>
Subject: Clicks in Khoisan, Sandawe-Hadzapi and Zulu-Xhosa

Hello, everyone! I am trying to find references (or personal
communication) dealing with the click consonants found in Khoisan,
Sandawe, Hadzapi and some of the Ngoni Bantu languages, including
isiZulu and isiXhosa. The main questions I am trying to answer (or
at least begin to answer :-) ) are the following:

 1. What are clicks? (phonologically speaking)
 a. Do they behave phonologically as other obstruents?
 b. Do they ever alternate (syn- or diachronically) with
 non-click consonants?
 c. Do loanwords into "click languages" ever substitute
 clicks for non-clicks in the source language?
 d. What recent, "non-linear" phonological analyses of
 "click languages" are available?

 2. Where do clicks in isiZulu and isiXhosa come from?
 a. Are there any good etymological resources connecting
 words with clicks in these languages to their
 presumed Khoisan originals.
 b. Where do non-initial clicks in these languages come
 from? Are they from compound words in Khoisan
 languages?
 c. Have the clicks become sufficiently integrated into
 the phonological systems of these languages that
 there are non-borrowed words containing clicks or
 words inherited from earlier stages of Ngoni or
 Bantu in which non-clicks have developed into
 clicks?

 3. What is/are the current model(s) of the internal (and
 external?) relations within the Khoisan family, especially
 regarding the status of Sandawe and Hadzapi?

Thank you, in advance! Have a great day! Bye.

 Bill Anderson
 wrandersindiana.edu

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