LINGUIST List 5.827

Wed 20 Jul 1994

FYI: Michigan Archives (Part 2)

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  1. , Michigan Archives (Part 2)

Message 1: Michigan Archives (Part 2)

Date: Sat, 16 Jul 94 16:27:16 EDMichigan Archives (Part 2)
From: <>
Subject: Michigan Archives (Part 2)

Dear Colleagues,

 I'm taking this opportunity to announce a minor structural revision of
 the Online Linguistics Archive of the University of Michigan
 ( It isn't terribly important, but it
 should be noted, because it may affect some of the instructions you've
 received in the past. I've eliminated a number of empty directories
 and put all non-LINGUIST, non-software, non-font, non-Celtling material
 under a single directory, "texts". This includes the subdirectories

 o texts/biblio,
 o texts/lexica (containing word lists),
 o texts/papers (containing offprints, and
 texts/papers/available, containing publication lists),
 o texts/syllabi (containing the COSWL syllabus collection), and
 o texts/indices, of which more below.

 Updated instructions for FTP use follow. Enjoy.

-John Lawler
 Program in Linguistics University of Michigan
 Linguistic Archivist

 How to get stuff from the Linguistics Archive via Anonymous FTP
 with some additional information on how to put stuff there
 and an annotated sample session

 Last update: Bastille Day 1994

 --- * ---

 First, make sure your computer is on the Internet. Even if you don't
 think it is, it's worthwhile to check with your local system gurus.
 You might be surprised at what they've been doing since the last
 time you heard about it. More and more BITnet sites are getting
 connected to the Internet, but many times not all their clients hear
 about it, and blithely go on using BITnet mail without knowing they
 have an Internet mail address. So *do* check it out if you're not
 *completely* certain. This is especially important now (7/94), since
 it is becoming fairly common for BITnet addresses to be automatically
 deleted from mailing lists, with substitution of equivalent Internet
 addresses where possible.

 Second, you will not be using mail of any sort to get files from the
 Archive. You will be using FTP. This is an acronym standing both
 for a particular [F]ile [T]ransfer [P]rotocol that is used on the
 Internet, *and* for any program that can be invoked to transfer files
 using that protocol. You don't have to worry about the protocol, but
 you *do* have to worry about the program. Most Internet-connected
 computers have a program called "FTP" available, and the commands for
 it are fairly standard. There is also gopher service to the UM
 archives, and you can use that as well; same address. Mosaic
 (WorldWideWeb) service is currently under construction and should be
 announced fairly soon.

 However, not all FTP programs behave the same, since they can run on
 many different operating systems and have to follow the rules they
 lay down for such things as naming files, maximum file size, etc.
 While you're checking with your system gurus, get hold of a recent
 copy of their documentation for *their* version of FTP, and read it
 carefully, noting such things as limitations, known bugs, and
 variations from the Internet standard. So you'll have to make sure
 you know how to invoke FTP on your system. And you'll have to be
 aware of how much file space you have available; some files on the
 Archives are *big*; half a megabyte for one file is not uncommon, and
 several megabytes is not unknown. And FTP doesn't check to see
 whether you have the room; it just stops after your disk allocation
 is exceeded, whether it's done or not.

 Third, if you've gotten this far, here's how you get to the Archives:


 When you're prompted for a login, use the name 'anonymous' (without the
 quotes, of course). You'll be asked for a password; use your e-mail
 address - actually, anything will work, but this is the polite
 convention. Then - if there aren't too many 'anonymous'es logged on
 already - you'll be connected to the 'root' directory.

 The Linguistics Archive is one of many at the University of Michigan;
 there are also gigantic collections of public-domain software and
 shareware for many computers, notably Macintosh and DOS, available
 for anonymous FTP. These are in a number of directories, most
 notably "msdos" and "mac", which are enormous collections of public
 domain software and shareware for the eponoymous machines, and run to
 several gigabytes each, and "linguistics", which is the ostensive
 topic of this text.

 At any point, you can use the 'ls' ([L]i[S]t files) command to see the
 file directory. The form 'ls -ls' is recommended; this allows you to see
 also how big each file is, which can be crucial to know. To see what
 directory you're in, the command is 'pwd' ([P]rint [W]orking
 [D]irectory). These are Unix commands, but they're standard for FTP.
 You can also use the 'cd' ([C]hange [D]irectory) command to move to
 the appropriate directory (let's assume it's 'linguistics') thus:

 cd linguistics

 The UM Archives are housed on a Unix machine, though that doesn't really
 matter for most things. However, one thing *is* important to know: Unix
 is CaSe-SeNsItIvE. This means that CAPITAL LETTERS must be typed as
 CAPITAL LETTERS, and lowercase as lowercase. If you get an error
 message that indicates FTP can't find the file you're looking for, be
 sure to check that you typed all the appropriate capitalization in the
 command. And attempting to use FTP with your caps lock on is a very
 frustrating experience. Incidentally, I have capitalized "FTP"
 throughout this text, but only for visual clarity; as a matter of
 principle, don't use capital letters for anything on the Net unless
 you are sure that you may, or that you must.

 So, you're now in the linguistics directory. Do 'ls -ls' and 'pwd'
 commands to show you. Most of what's there is subdirectories. Here's a
 diagram of the linguistics directory and its current subdirectory

 New directory tree for
 (modified 7/13/94)

 [root directory (/) where you log in]
 [cd] linguistics [to get here]
 | | | | | |
 | uploads | celtling | software
 | texts | |
 | | | +---+---+
 | +-------+-------+-------+--------+ | | | |
 | | | | | | | dos | mac
 | lexica papers biblio indices syllabi | |
 fonts | |
 | available |
 +-+-+ linguist.list
 | | |
 mac dos +---------+---------+---------+---------+
 | | | | | |
 windows volume.1 volume.2 volume.3 volume.4 volume.5


 There are 6 subdirectories under linguistics, of which 4 have their own
 subdirectories. You can get to any of them via the 'cd' command.

 * *
 * N.B. This represents a restructuring of the archives. Notice that *
 * there is no longer a "handouts" directory, and that the sub- *
 * directories "biblio", "indices", "lexica", "papers", and *
 * "syllabi" are now all under the "texts" directory. *
 * *

 For instance, if you wanted to get the electronic index to Beth
 Levin's book, which is in the directory linguistics/texts/indices,
 the command to get there, starting from root at login, is:

 cd linguistics/texts/indices

 Once you're in the appropriate directory, and have seen the file you
 want to get (in this case, "evca93.index"), the FTP command to transfer
 it to your computer is:

 get evca93.index verb.ind [download as "verb.ind" on target system]

 [Note, incidentally, that the last part of that command may
 not actually be necessary -- but almost every computer
 system will accept a name like "verb.ind", while plenty
 will choke on a name like "evca93.index", so better to be
 safe than sorry. You can always change it to something else.]

 ...and that's all. There is much more to FTP than this, but this *is*
 all you really need to know to use it. With one exception -- to
 terminate the session and close the connection, the command is:


 Anything you can get from the Archives via anonymous FTP has been put
 there by intention, and you are officially permitted to download it.
 However, this does not necessarily mean you may do anything you like
 with it; many things are copyrighted, and may forbid things like making
 commercial use of them. Consult the relevant files.

 One additional thing you can do with FTP is to PUT files somewhere
 instead of just GETting them. In particular, while an FTP user
 logged on as "anonymous" is not allowed to modify, delete, or add
 files in most directories on, for
 pretty obvious reasons, there *is* one directory where all users
 have write privileges: the directory


 is directly beneath the directory


 in the diagram above. Thus, issuing the command

 cd linguistics/uploads

 immediately after logging on will get you there. Don't be surprised
 if it looks like there's nothing there when you try to use the 'ls'
 command. In the uploads directory, "anonymous" is only allowed to
 Write, not to Read. Here one can use PUT, but not GET; elsewhere,
 one can use GET, but not PUT.

 To submit files for inclusion in any of the directories, thus making
 them available to everyone on the Internet, do two things:

 a) PUT the file(s) on linguistics/uploads with FTP

 b) Send mail to telling about it.
 Include your name and e-mail address.

 If you have any other questions about FTP, or about any particular
 error message or problem you're encountering, remember, your first
 and most reliable line of defense is your *local* system admistration.
 If you have questions about the Linguistics Archive particularly,
 send them to:

 A sample FTP session from an internet-connected machine.
 Commands typed by user are in {Curly Brackets}
 Comments are in [Square Brackets]

 (Note: Your mileage may vary.)

{ftp} [Initial command on home system] FTP client (Version of Nov 16/92 09:10:53)
 220 FTP server (Domain/OS sr10.3 30-Aug-91) ready.
 Name ( {anonymous} [log in for anonymous FTP]
 331 Guest login ok, send E-mail address as password.
 Password:{} [This is *my* mail address; you use yours]
 230 Guest login OK.
ftp> {pwd} [Where am I?]
 257 "//apollo21/afs/" is current directory.
 ["/archive"This is as high as you can get; ignore the rest]
ftp> {ls -ls} [What's here?]
 200 PORT command successful. [...Ignore this stuff]
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls (0 bytes).
... [Some irrelevant stuff omitted in the following lists]
 [| "d" here means it's a directory, not a file
 V ]
 -rw-r--r-- 1469 00doYOUhaveAFS [If you do, get and read this]
 -rw-rw-rw- 3927 00readme.txt [General instructions]
 drwxrwxrwx 2048 amiga [Amiga Archive]
 drwxr-xr-x 4096 apollo [Apollo Archive]
 drwxrwxrwx 2048 apple2 [Apple II Archive]
 drwxrwxr-x 4096 atari [Atari Archive]
 drwxrwxrwx 2048 economics [Economics Archive]
 drwxrwxrwx 2048 linguistics [Linguistics Archive]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 mac [Macintosh Archive]
 drwxr-xr-x 4096 msdos [MS-DOS Archive]
 drwxrwxrwx 2048 physics [Physics Archive]
 drwxrwxrwx 2048 tesol [TESOL Archive]
... [ ^^^^ File size in bytes, ignore for directories]
 226 Transfer complete.
 1665 bytes received in 11.825 seconds (0.137 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> {cd linguistics} [Go to linguistics directory
 250 CWD command successful.
tp> {pwd} [Where am I?]
 257 "//apollo21/afs/" is current
ftp> {ls -ls}
 200 PORT command successful.
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls (0 bytes).
 total 133 [...Ignore this]
 -rw-r--r-- 3805 Jul 14 08:04 00index.txt [informational file]
 -rw-r--r-- 3309 Jul 14 08:15 00readme.txt [informational file]
 -rw-rw-r-- 101842 May 9 18:03 [note capital "LSA"]
 -rw-r--r-- 16041 Jan 31 23:10 [note capital "LSA"]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jan 28 1992 fonts [subdirectory 1]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 13 22:16 texts [subdirectory 2]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jun 30 07:28 linguist.list [subdirectory 3]
 drwxr-xr-x 2048 Jul 9 21:26 papers [subdirectory 4]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jan 28 1992 software [subdirectory 5]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 9 21:23 uploads [subdirectory 6]
 [ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ Creation date for file or directory]
 226 Transfer complete.
 700 bytes received in 4.244 seconds (0.161 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> {cd texts}
 250 CWD command successful.
ftp> {pwd}
 257 "//apollo21/afs/" is
 current directory.
ftp> {ls -ls}
 200 PORT command successful.
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls (0 bytes).
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 11 12:09 biblio [subdirectory 1]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 11 12:09 indices [subdirectory 2]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 11 12:09 lexica [subdirectory 3]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 11 12:09 papers [subdirectory 4]
 drwxrwxr-x 2048 Jul 11 12:09 syllabi [subdirectory 5]
 226 Transfer complete.
 245 bytes received in 1.275 seconds (0.187 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> {cd indices}
 250 CWD command successful.
ftp> {pwd}
 257 "//apollo21/afs/"
 is current directory.
ftp> {ls -ls}
 200 PORT command successful.
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls (0 bytes).
 -rw-r--r-- 89411 Jul 13 20:50 evca93.index [there it is]
 226 Transfer complete.
 41 bytes received in .24 seconds (0.18 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> {GET EVCA93.INDEX VERB.IND} [change name of download]
 200 PORT command successful.
 550 EVCA93.index: No such file or directory. [WHOOPS! CAPS LOCK was on]
ftp> {get evca93.index verb.ind} [Check the spelling; right]
 200 PORT command successful.
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for evca93.index (89411 bytes).
 226 Transfer complete.
 89411 bytes received in 16.34 seconds (5.472 Kbytes/sec) [Rather slow]
ftp> {quit}
 221 Have A Nice Day. [Thanks.]
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