LINGUIST List 6.221

Wed 15 Feb 1995

Sum: Progressive with future time reference

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  1. Bertinetto, Sum: progressive with future time reference

Message 1: Sum: progressive with future time reference

Date: Wed, 15 Feb 1995 19:07:00 Sum: progressive with future time reference
From: Bertinetto <bertinetsns.it>
Subject: Sum: progressive with future time reference

Content-Length: 6465

Some time ago I posted a query concerning the possible existence of
languages in which the morpheme expressing the notion of "progressive" may
be used with future time reference, as in English:
- I am leaving tomorrow.
The coexistence of progressive and a future time adverbial is the decisive
factor.
I started from a very scanty piece of knowledge: besides English, I only
know of Icelandic (quoted in a paper by Karen Ebert, that will appear in a
volume on tense and aspect), and possibly Kinyarwanda (but I need more data
concerning this language).
As I suspected, this feature seems to be very rare.
I got only two answers. The first one is from John Koontz
(koontzalpha.bldr.nist.gov).
Since it is not particularly long, I reproduce it entirely:

 =======================================================================
The Dhegiha branch of Mississippi Valley Siouan all form progressives by
pairing the simple verb with a positional auxiliary, and omitting the
plural/proximate marker that otherwise occurs in the plural forms and the
third person singular proximate.

 dhatha=i he ate/eats dhatha=i they ate/eat
 dhathe he (obv) ate/eats

 dhathe=akha he is eating dhathe=ama they are eating

The usual reading of the simple form is past/aorist. There are special
auxiliary and/or enclitic constructions for habitual.

The future is formed with the enclitic =tte, which requires the auxiliary
following it.

 dhathe=tta=akha he will eat dhathe=tta=ama they will eat

The future without the auxiliary expresses polite requests, and there is
also a form =tta=i=the (no auxiliary; basically the evidential of the
future) that has the reading `shall surely'.

 dhathe=tta=i=the he/they shall surely eat

Note also:

 dhatha=bi=ama they say that he ate/eats (not the same ama, I believe)
 dhatha=i=the it seems that he ate/eats

John Koontz
 =======================================================================

Answering a further request of clarification, Koontz kindly added the
following (the letter B presumably stands for my syrname):

 =======================================================================
)The Dhegiha branch of Mississippi Valley Siouan all form progressives by
)pairing the simple verb with a positional auxiliary, and omitting the
)plural/proximate marker that otherwise occurs in the plural forms and the
)third person singular proximate.
)
) dhatha=i he ate/eats dhatha=i they ate/eat
) dhathe he (obv) ate/eats
)
) dhathe=akha he is eating dhathe=ama they are eating

B) WHY ARE THERE TWO FORMS: akha and ama?

These auxiliaries are identical to the definite articles, and like them code
the shape/posture/motion of the subject. Historically there are derived
from positional verbs and particles.
 =akha is the singular/motionless/proximate form
 =ama is the plural or singular/moving/proximate form

Other forms are used in the first and second persons, generally derived from
the sitting article/auxiliary, e.g., mi~khe `I the sitting', ni~khe `you
the sitting'. The stem is dhi~khe `(he) the sitting'.

)The usual reading of the simple form is past/aorist. There are special
)auxiliary and/or enclitic constructions for habitual.

B) YOUR GLOSS INDICATES INDICATES PRESENT MEANING, NON ONLY PAST/AORIST
B) MEANING.

A present, non-progressive reading is possible in appropriate contexts. I
believe such forms are essentially nomic.

)The future is formed with the enclitic =tte, which requires the auxiliary
)following it.
)
) dhathe=tta=akha he will eat dhathe=tta=ama they will eat

B) DOES IT HAVE PROGRESSIVE AND FUTURE MEANING, OR ONLY FUTURE?

No trace at all of progressive reading that I have detected. The forms
without the auxiliary are limited to those mentioned, i.e., the future of
surity with =the appended, and the future of polite requests, used without
further marking, in the second person.

)The future without the auxiliary expresses polite requests, and there is
)also a form =tta=i=the (no auxiliary; basically the evidential of the
)future) that has the reading `shall surely'.
)
) dhathe=tta=i=the he/they shall surely eat
)
)Note also:
)
) dhatha=bi=ama they say that he ate/eats (not the same ama, I believe)
) dhatha=i=the it seems that he ate/eats
)
)John Koontz

Similar patterns occur in all of the Dhegiha languages, i.e., Omaha-Ponca,
Osage, Kansa (Kaw), and Quapaw.
 =======================================================================

The second answer is from Lars Anders Kulbrandstad
(LarsAnders.Kulbrandstadhamarlh.no).
Unfortunately, there are some misterious characters, but the content is
sufficiently clear.

 =======================================================================
There is no fullfledged progressive construction in Norwegian, but we have
something that still might be of interest to you.

Dialects in the south-eastern part of the country have a future
construction consisting of the auxilliary "bli" (literally =3D "get, become"=)
in the present tense + present participle of the main verb. The sentence
corresponding to "I will be going to Oslo tomorrow" would be "Je blir
draens (=3D "I + get/become + going") tel Oslo i m=E5r=E5!"
 =======================================================================

I hope this may be of some interest to somebody, or maybe stimulate other
people to provide further information on this matter. I am still eager to
receive new input.
Thanks to those who responded. Best,
PM
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