LINGUIST List 7.1262

Wed Sep 11 1996

Disc: Sumerian and PIE

Editor for this issue: Ann Dizdar <dizdartam2000.tamu.edu>


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  1. miguel, IE- Sumerian (2)

Message 1: IE- Sumerian (2)

Date: Fri, 06 Sep 1996 17:06:49 PDT
From: miguel <mcvpi.net>
Subject: IE- Sumerian (2)

This article contains further proof that Sumerian and IE are closely
related. It was obtained by inspection of the most reliable wordlist
at my disposal, Marie-Louise Thomsen's Catalogue of Verbs in "The
Sumerian Language", 1984. Of the 192 verbs/adjectives, 181 are given
IE etymologies here, a number that is almost certainly too high. I
think the vast majority of them are solid, though.

I'd like to call attention especially to item #25, the
three suppletive roots of the verb "to carry."


1. SOUND CORRESPONDENCES.

For initial consonants, I have used the following correspondences:

PIE Sumerian PIE Sumerian PIE Sumerian

(*b) b *d d *g g
*bh b, p *dh d (t, r?) *gh g (k)
*p p *t t *k k

*gw g, g~, m, (b?)
*gwh g, g~, m, (b?, k)
*kw k, g~, m

*y -- *n n *? --
*w g~, m *l l, n *h h, --
*m m *r r, Vr *hw h, g~/m

*s s, s^ *Cl- l
*sk s^ *Cr- C
*st z


Medially/finally:

PIE Sumerian PIE Sumerian PIE Sumerian

*b -- *d -- *g --
*p, *bh b, -- *t, *dh d, -- *k, *gh g, --

*gw -- ? *y i, -- ? *? i?, --
*kw, *gwh m, g~ *w u, g~/m, -- *h(w) a/i/u?, --

The rest the same as initially (except for l/r and n/m getting
confused).


2. THOMSEN'S CATALOG OF VERBS

["Reconstructions" of "Proto-Sumerian" are only tentative]:

1. ag~2 "to measure, to measure (strength?) = to command, to measure
 (the earth) = to love"

	8. au-, aue^i- "to sense, to notice" (Pokorny, p. 78).
	[Note also:]
	6. au-, aued- "to speak" (p. 76).
	7. au-, aue^-, aue^i- "to love, to desire, to help" (p. 77).

Reconstruction: *awe "to notice, to measure"

2. ak "to make, to do"

	ag^- "to drive, lead, put into motion" (p. 4).

Reconstruction: *a(g)-ak "to make, do"

3. ba "to give as a gift or ration"

	1. bhag- "to ration, to alot" (p. 107).

Reconstruction: *ba(g) "to ration"

4. bad.r "to be remote, to remove, to open (the hand)"

	1. pet-, p.t-, pet- "to spread out (the arms)" (p. 824).
	[Note the many forms with -r suffix.]

Reconstruction: *pat-r "to spread out"

5. ba.al "to dig"

	3. bher- "to bore, to drill, to cut, to cut to pieces" (p. 133).
	[Many words mean hole, plough, spade...]

Reconstruction: *ba^r "to dig (a hole)"

6. bal "to cross, transfer, pour off, libate, shake (the head)"

	2. bher- "to boil, to be excited" (p. 132).
	bal-, balbal- "to whirl, to turn" (p. 93).

Reconstruction: *bal "to turn"; bar "to boil"

7. bar "to open, split, keep away"

	3. bher- "to bore, to drill, to cut, to cut to pieces" (p. 133).

Reconstruction: *bar "to split"

8. bi6 "to tear (off)"

	bhre^i-, bhri(^)- "to bore, to cut (to pieces)" (p. 166).

Reconstruction: *bri "to tear to pieces"

9. bil "to burn"

	bheleg-, bhleg, bhelg- "to shine" (p. 124).
	[Maybe bhelg- ?]

Reconstruction: *beli(g) "to burn"

10. bir "to scatter"

	3. bher- "to bore, to drill, to cut, to cut to pieces" (p. 133).

Reconstruction: *ber "to scatter"

11. bi.z "to drip"

	1. bhes "to rub off, crush, scatter" (p. 145).
	[Note Greek psias "drop", and Toch. pa"s "pour".]

Reconstruction: *bes-t "to drip"

12. bu.luh / bu.uh2 "to tremble"

	bh(e)reu-: bh(e)ru(^)-, "to brew, to boil, to be excited" (p. 143).

Reconstruction: *boruh "to tremble"

13. bulug~3 "to grow"

	4. bhel-, bhle^-, bhlo^-, bhl- "leaf; to grow, to bloom" (p. 122).
	[Note OE blo^wan, with -w- suffix]

Reconstruction: *boluw "to bloom, grow"

14. bu.r "to tear out"

	3. bher- "to bore, to drill, to cut, to cut to pieces" (p. 133).

Reconstruction: *bor "to tear"

15. bur2 "to spread out (a garment), to loosen, dissolve, reveal,
 inspect, to bare (the teeth)"

	? 3. bher- "to bore, to drill, to cut, to cut to pieces" (p. 133).

Reconstruction: *bor "to open, lay bare"

16. bur3 "to pearce, to break in (a house)"

	3. bher- "to bore, to drill, to cut, to cut to pieces" (p. 133).
	[Better connection might be Latin fur- "thief" (< *bhur?)].

Reconstruction: *bur "break in"

17. dab5 "to seize, catch"

	da^: d-, da^i-: di- :di(^)- "to cut up, to divide, to offer,
 to eat" (p. 175).
	da^p, dp- "to cut up, divide", dp-no- "meal offering" (p. 176).
	[Original meaning must have been "hunt"]

Reconstruction: *dap "to hunt, catch"

18. dag2, dadag "clean"

	da^- "liquid; to flow" (p. 175).
 [Note especially Arm. tamuk "wet", Hitt. dame(n)k "to fall as
 rain"].

Reconstruction: *da(m)k "to wash, clean"

19. dag "to run, rove about"

	4. der-, der-, dre^- "to skin, to tear off, to split" (p. 206).
	derek- "to skin, to tear off, to split" (p. 210).
	[Note Slov. drkam "glide, run, trot", Russ. derkij "fast".
	Cf. also E. "split, take off = go away"]

Reconstruction: *de(r)k "to take off, to split"

20. dag~al "wide"

	3. deu-, deu-, dua^-, du^- "to move forward, be distant, far, long
 (in time)" (p. 219).

Reconstruction: *dewal "far, wide"

21. dah "to add, say further, help"

	? *do^-: d-, do^-u-: du-: du "to give" (p. 223).

Reconstruction: *dah "to help, add to, [give]"

22. dal "to fly"

	2. del- "to wobble", or
	2. dei- (dia^-, di-, di^-) "to whirl, to fly, to speed" (p. 187).
	[The second form seems closer in meaning, if not in form]

Reconstruction: *d(i)a-l "to fly"

23. dar "to split"

	da^: d-, da^i-: di- :di(^)- "to cut up, to divide, to offer,
 to eat" (p. 175).

Reconstruction: *da-r "to cut up, split"

24. de2 "to pour"

	1. dei-, dei-, di^-, dia^- "to shine brightly, to pour (light)"
 (p. 183).
	[Note Low-German ti^l "honey", and Slavic *dus-diu "rain"]

Reconstruction: *de(i) "to pour"

25. de6; tum2; lah4 "to bring, carry"
	
	2. dhe^ "to set, to put; to make, to do" (p. 235), and
	1. tel-, tel-, tle^(i)-, tla^- "to carry, to lift, weigh, to
	endure, tolerate" (p. 1060).
	[Note the striking resemblance to Latin fero (*bher-), tuli,
	latum.
 Maybe tum2 should be read [tuh] or [tul]?]

Reconstruction: *de [be??], *tl.h [?], *tlah "to carry"

26. dib "to pass by"

	?

27. dim2 "to make, fashion, create"

	dem-, dem- "to build; house" (p. 198).

Reconstruction: *dem(i) "to make"

28. dirig "to float, be extra, supreme over"

	1. dher-, dher-gh- "drab, leftover fat, faeces, dirty, dark"
 (p. 251).

Reconstruction: *der-ig

29. du3 [dru] "to erect, build"

	deru-, do(^)ru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; dreue-: dru^- "tree" (p. 214).
	[The semantic shift tree->building material->build is obvious,
	and occurs sporadically in the IE forms.
	The meaning "tree" may be conserved in "g~i-dru" scepter
	(*wit-dru, "tree-branch")]

Reconstruction: *dru "tree; to build"

30. du7 "to butt, gore"

	? dig(h)- "goat" (p. 222).
	[It is tempting to associate the Sumerian with this word for
	"goat"
 (Armenian, Germanic).]
	
Reconstruction: *do(g) "to butt"

31. du8 [duh, dur?] "to open, loosen, release"

	? 3. deu-, deu-, dua^-, du^- "to move forward, be distant,
	far, long (in time)" (p. 219).
	[Connection doubtful. Judging by dag~al, the laryngeal was
	not of the "hard" kind. But the root in question does often
	have forms in -r (Lat. durare, etc.)].

Reconstruction: *du-r "to be wide, open [?]"

32. du12 "to play an instrument, to sing"

	dheugh- "to touch, to press, to express, to milk, be
	plentiful" (p. 271).
	[Note Irish du^an "poem", for the meaning "to sing"].

Reconstruction: *du(g) "to play, sing"

33. dub "to heap up, sprinkle off, strew"

	4. dheu-, dheu- (dhue^-) "to whirl, to blow, to smoke, to
	smell, to storm, to be excited, to shake; dust, smoke, breath"
	(p. 261).

Reconstruction: *du-p "to heap up"

34. dub2 "to tremble"

 As above, from 4. dheu-, or maybe:
 dhreup- "to fall apart" (p. 275).

Reconstruction: *drup "to tremble"

35. dug3 "good, pleasant"

	dlku- "sweet" (p. 222).

Reconstruction: *dl.k "sweet, good"

36. dug4; e "to speak, say, tell, order, converse"

	dng^hu^, dng^hua^ "tongue" (p. 223).
	e^g^-, o^g^-, g^- "to speak, to say" (p. 290).
	[Note that in "eme" [< *enghwe ?], the initial d has been
	lost, as also occurs in IE].

Reconstruction: *dn.g, *e(g) "to speak"

37. dugud "heavy, important"

	deuk- "to pull, to lead" (p. 220).
	[Also "to carry, to care for, to lead [dux, Herzog]].

Reconstruction: *duk-Vt "to carry a load, be heavy"

38. dul "to cover"

	4. dheu-, dheu- (dhue^-) "to whirl, to blow, to smoke, to
	smell, to storm, to be excited, to shake; dust, smoke, breath"
	(p. 261).
	[-l suffix like in the IE words for "dust", etc.]

Reconstruction: *du-l "to cover (with dust, sand)"

39. dun "to dig (with a hoe)"

	4. dheu-, dheu- (dhue^-) "to whirl, to blow, to smoke, to
	smell, to storm, to be excited, to shake; dust, smoke, breath"
	(p. 261).
	[-n suffix as in "dune", or -m?]

Reconstruction: *dun [*dum ?] "to pile up earth, to dig"

40. e3; e3.d [i] "to go out, bring out"
41. e11.d "to go down/up, to bring down/up"

	1. ei-, ei-dh-, ei-gh-, i-ta^-, ia^-, ie^-: io^-: i- "to go"
	(p. 293).

Reconstruction: *i, *it- "to go [out, down, up]"

42. gal "big"

	3. g(h)al- "to be able to" [Slav. gole^m: "big, high"]
	(p. 351).
	[If gal could be read g~al, rather:]
	ual-, ual-d(h)- "strong" [Toch. wa^lo "king"] (p. 1111).
	3. uel- "to press together, to gather, to lock in" (p. 1138).
	[The last root the source of Russ. vel-ikij, etc "big"]

Reconstruction: *gal [*wal?] "big"

43. galam "artful, elaborate, high"

	? Slavic gole^m [see gal].

Reconstruction: *gal-em "high"

44. gam [gur2?] "to bow down, kneel"

	ge^u-, gu-, gu^- "to bend, to curve" (p. 393).
	geu-ro-s, gu^-ro-s, etc. "round, curved" (p. 397).
	[The etymology supports the gur2 reading].

Reconstruction: *gur "bow, kneel"

45. gaz "to slaughter, kill, strike, break, crush"

	1. g^hasto-, g^hazdo- "pole, javelin; to spear" (p. 412).
	
Reconstruction: *gast "to spear, kill, break"

46. ge.n "firm, strong; to establish as property"

	gem- "to seize, to press, to fill" (p. 368).
	g^em()- "to marry" (p, 369).

Reconstruction: *gem "to seize firmly"

47. gi4 "to return, come back, send back, answer"

	gei- "to turn, to bend" (p. 354).
	geis- "to turn, to bend" (p. 355).

Reconstruction: *gi(-s) "to turn, return"

48. gib/gil "crossed, twisted; to block, cause difficulty"

	? see *gei- above, with -p and/or? -l affixes.

Reconstruction: *gi-p, *gi-l "twisted, hedge [?]"

49. gibil "new; to renew"

	From the same root as the above words.

Reconstruction: *gi-pV-l "new, renew, new cycle"

50. gid2 "long; to measure out, to draw (a boat), to stretch out (the
 hand)"

	1. g^he^-, g^he^i- "to be empty; to leave, go away, go"
	(p. 418).

Reconstruction: *gi-t "to be away, to go away"

51. gig "sick, painful"

	?

52. gu7 "to eat, feed"

	ge^u-, gu-, gu^- "to bend, to curve" (p. 393).
	gut-r "throat" (p. 394).

Reconstruction: *gu "to swallow, to eat" [and: *gutr "throat, neck"?]

53. gub; su8.g "to stand, erect, stand by, serve, stand aside"

	ge^u-, gu-, gu^- "to bend, to curve" (p. 393).
	gupa^ "hole in the ground" (p. 395).
	3. seu-: su-: seue-: su^- "to bend, to turn, to lead on"
	(p. 914).

Reconstruction: *gu-p "ground, to ground, erect, stand", *su-k "id."

54. gu4.ud "to jump"

	1. ghre^u-: ghru-: ghru^- "to fall apart, to fall upon, to
	fall" (p. 460).

Reconstruction: *gru^-t "to fall, to jump"

55. gu.ul "to enlarge, increase, make numerous"

	(ghre^-:) ghro^-: ghr- "to grow, be green", ghro^-s: ghrs-
	"grass" (p. 454).

Reconstruction: *gro^-l "to grow, increase"

56. gul "to destroy, fall upon, wreck to pieces"

	1. ghre^u-: ghru-: ghru^- "to fall apart, to fall upon, to
	fall" (p. 460).
	2. ghre^u-: ghru-: ghru^- "to rub hard, to crush" (p. 460).

Reconstruction: *gru-l "to fall upon, to crush"

57. gun3 "multicolored"

	g^hel- (ghel-), g^hel-: g^hle^-, g^hlo^-: g^hl- "to shine,
	glitter; yellow, green, blue, grey" (p. 429).
	[both -n and -m occur as affixes]

Reconstruction: *glo^-n [glo^-m] "multicolored"

58. gur "to come back, return, reject (evidence), turn away from, bend
 (the arm), roll/wrap (with the hand)"

	ge^u-, gu-, gu^- "to bend, to curve" (p. 393).
	geu-ro-s, gu^-ro-s, etc. "round, curved" (p. 397).

Reconstruction: *gur "to bend, curve"

59. gur4 "thick, wonderful"

	ge^u-, gu-, gu^- "to bend, to curve" (p. 393).
	geu-ro-s, gu^-ro-s, etc. "round, curved" (p. 397).

Reconstruction: *gur "round, thick"

60. g~al2 "to be (somewhere), to be available, possible, to be with
 s.o., to place (into), to have on one's person, carry"

	ual-, ual-d(h)- "strong" (p. 1111).
	[Note Lat. valere "to be strong, valid", Russ. vladet'
	"to own", etc.]

Reconstruction: *wal "to own, be able to, etc."

61. g~ar "to place, to restore, to remove from"

	5. uer- "to lock, cover, hide, guard, save" (p. 1160).

Reconstruction: *war "to store"

62. g~en; du; (e.)re7.er; su8.b "to go, come"

	gwa^-, gwem- "to go, to come; to be born" p. 463).
	1. dheu- "to walk, to run" (p. 259).
	3. er-: or-: r- "to move, to elate, be high" (p. 326),
	[or maybe:
		reidh- "to ride, move" (p. 861), or
		ret(h)- "to walk, to run; wheel" (p. 866).
	]
	[I have not been able to find an appropriate cognate for
	su8.b. If it is possible to read the sign as /zu.b/, the
	following would be a possibility:
	steb(h)-, ste^b(h)-: stbh- "pole, trunk, to support, make
	fast, hinder; to step (on), to walk" (p. 1011).
	]

Reconstruction: *(g)wem, *du, *er-er, *stob [?] "to go, come"

63. g~ir2 "to lighten, flash"

	[Maybe:]
	3. uei-, uei-: ui(^)- "to go, drive away, be strong"
	(p. 1123), and	ui(^)ros- "man, powerful" (p. 1177).
	[Another possibility is:]
	2. uer-, uer-d-, uer-s- "high, high place" (p. 1151).
 [I prefer the first, as it would allow explaining dig~ir
	[Emesal dimmeer] as *diw-wi^r "heaven-force [lightning]"].

Reconstruction: *wir "lightning"

64. hal "to deal out, distribute"

	2. al- "to grow, to feed" (p. 26).

Reconstruction: *hal "to feed, distribute"

65. ha.lam "to ruin, destroy"

	3. a(^)l- "to wander, be confused" (p. 27).
	4. al- "to burn" (p. 28).
	5. al- "to grind, to pulverize" (p. 28).

Reconstruction: *hal-am "to destroy"

66. har "to chew"

	5. al- "to grind, to pulverize" (p. 28).
	[or rather Hittite hark- "to destroy"?]

Reconstruction: *har(g) "to chew"

67. ha.za "to hold, grasp"

	? areq- "to protect, hold, have" (p. 65)
	Hittite har(k)-

Reconstruction: *ha(rk)-[sta?] "to hold"

68. he/hi "to mix"

	?

69. hug~ "to hire, rent"

	8. ues- "to buy, sell" (p. 1173).

Reconstruction: huwe(s)? "to hire"

70. hul "to destroy"

	ol-(e)- "to destroy" (p. 777).
	5. el-, ol- "to destroy, to ruin" (p. 306).

Reconstruction: *hol "to destroy"

71. hul2 "to rejoice over"

	ul-, ulul- "to howl" (p. 1105).

Reconstruction: *hul "to rejoice"

72. hu.luh "to become frightened"

	Connection with hul?

73. hur "to scratch, to grind"

	ereb-, orob-, ro:b- "to bore, drill, make holes" (p. 333).

Reconstruction: *hur(b) "to scratch, gind"

74. il2 "to lift, carry"

	6. el-, el-: la^-; el-eu(-dh)- "to set in motion, drive; to
	go" (p. 306).

Reconstruction: *el(i) "to carry (up)"

75. zi...ir "to [IR] the soul = to be worried"

	3. er-: or-: r- "to move, to elate, be high" (p. 326).

Reconstruction: *er(i) "to move (up)"

76. kal "precious"

	2. kal-, kali-, kalu- "beautiful, healthy" (p. 524).

Reconstruction: *kal "precious"

77. kalag "strong"

	2. kal-, kali-, kalu- "beautiful, healthy" (p. 524).

Reconstruction: *kal-ak "healthy, strong"

78. (nu-)kam3(-me-) "(un)change(able)"

	(s)kamb- "to bend, to curve; crooked; change" (p. 918).

Reconstruction: *kam(b) "change"

79. kar "to flee, take away, remove"

	Maybe:
	1. kar- "to scorn, to punish" (p. 530).
	koro-s, korio-s "war, warlord" (p. 615).
	Cf. also:
	4. (s)ker, (s)ker-, (s)kre^ "to cut" (p. 938).

Reconstruction: *kar "to flee, etc."

80. kar2 "to shine, illuminate"

	(s)ka^i-(d/t)- "bright, shiny; image, sign, clear" (p. 916).
	
Reconstruction: *ka-t-r "to shine"

81. kes^2/kes^da [kes^dr?] "to bind"

	k(^)es- "to scratch, to comb; hair" (p. 585/586).
	k^(e)s-tro-m "knife"
	[comb => hair => hairdo => tie, bind?]

Reconstruction: *kes-tr "comb"

82. kid2 "to pinch off (clay), to break off"

	ske(^)i-d/t- "to cut, to split" (p. 920, 921).

Reconstruction: *ki-t "to cut, break off"

83. kin [kig~?] "to seek"

	ke^i- (: ki-: ki(^), ki^-(n-)eu, ki-: kie^) "to put in
	motion, to move" (p. 538).

Reconstruction: *ki-n "to go, seek out"

84. kir3 "to nip off (clay)"

	4. (s)ker, (s)ker-, (s)kre^ "to cut" (p. 938).

Reconstruction: *ker(i) "to cut, nip off"

85. u3...ku-ku "to [KU-KU] sleep = to sleep"

	2. keu-, keu- "to bend, to curve, to huddle" (p. 588).
	2. (s)keu-, (s)keu-: (s)ku^- "to cover, protect" (p. 951).

Reconstruction: *ku "to huddle up, cover o.s."

86. kud.r "to cut off"

	6. ske^u-(t)- "to cut, to split, to scratch" (p. 954).

Reconstruction: *ku-t-r "to cut"

87. ku10.g "black, dark"

	2. (s)keu-, (s)keu-: (s)ku^- "to cover, protect" (p. 951).

Reconstruction: *ku-k "covered, dark"

88. kug "clean, pure; to cleanse"

	1. (s)keu- "to prepare, to adorn, to dress" (p. 950).

Reconstruction: *ku-k "to cleanse"

89. ku4.r; sun5 "to enter, bring in, to turn into, become"

	2. keu-, keu- "to bend, to curve, to huddle" (p. 588).
	3. seu-: su-: seue-: su^- "to bend, to turn, to lead on"
	(p. 914).

Reconstruction: *ku-r, su-n "to turn (into)"

90. kur2 "to change"

	As ku4.r above (maybe another consonant followed: *ku-rC).

91. kus^2.u3 "to be troubled, care about, become tired"

	2. (s)keu-, (s)keu-: (s)ku^- "to cover, protect" (p. 951).
		
Reconstruction: *ku-sku "to care; troubled, tired (of caring)"

92. la2 "to carry, hang from; weigh out, pay; bind, harness; be few,
 diminish; stretch; let (the neck) hang down, to hold (in the
 hand)"

	le(^)b-, lo(^)b-, la^b-, l.b- "to hang loosely off, lip, to be
	weak, etc." (p. 655).

Reconstruction: *la(b) "to hang loose, be weak, bind?"

93. lu "numerous, abundant"

	1. leudh- "to grow up, progeny, people" (p. 684).

Reconstruction: *lu(d) "abundant, people"
	
94. lu.g "to swarm (of fish and birds)"

	2. lek (: lk-), le^k-: lk- "limb, articulation, bend, jump;
	locust" (p. 673).
 Compare also: 2. le^k- "to shred; rag" (p. 674).

Reconstruction: *lok- "locust, swarm"

95. luh "to cleanse, wash"

	lou-, lou- "to wash" (p. 692).

Reconstruction: *loh "to wash"

96. (ma5,) ma5-ma5 "to burn; to grind"

	9. ues- = aues-
	aues- "to shine, dawn, gold" (p. 86).
	1. mel- (smel-), mel-: mle^-, etc. "to crush, pound, mill;
	fine, soft, weak" (p. 716).
	mel-k, mla^k- "weak, soft, dim" (p. 719).

Reconstruction: *was "to burn"; *mlak "to grind"

97. mah "great, magnificent"

	meg^(h): m.g^(h)- "big" (p. 708).

Reconstruction: *ma(g)h "great"

98. me "to be"

	1. ues- "to stay, dwell, live, spend the night; to be"
	(p. 1170).

Reconstruction: *we(s) "to be"

99. mu2 "to grow"

	aueg-, uo^g-, aug-, ug- "to add, to enlarge, to grow" (p. 84).

Reconstruction: *wo(g) "to grow"

100. mu4.r "to dress, clothe"

	5. ues- "dress" (p. 1172).

Reconstruction: *wo(s)-r "to dress"

101. mul "to shine, radiate (of branches)"

	2. mer- "to shine, glitter" (p. 733).
	rather than:
	12. uer- "to burn" (p. 1166).

Reconstruction: *mor "to shine"

102. na2 [nu?] "to lie (together), to lay down"
	
	legh- "to lie (down), to lay" (p. 658).

Reconstruction: *l~o(g) "to lie"

103. nag~ "to drink"

	2. uelk-, uelg- "wet" (p. 1145).
	[Latin liquidus < *wlik-w-?]

Reconstruction: *(w)l~aw "wet, to drink"

104. nig~in; nini? "to wander around, surround"

	?

105. pad.r "to break"

	bha^t-: bht- "to beat, to strike" (p. 111).
	
Reconstruction: *bat-r "to beat, break"

106. pad3 "to call, see, show, reveal, find, choose out of"

	1. bha^-, bho^-, bh- "to shine, to appear" (p. 104).

Reconstruction: *ba-t "to appear, see, show, ..."

107. pes^ "thick"

	pei()-, pi(^); pi^mos-s, pi^uo-s "fat" (p. 793).

Reconstruction: *pe(i)-sk "fat, thick"

108. pil / pi.il / pe.el "obscure, dirty, defiled"

	6. pel- "grey, pale color" (p. 804).

Reconstruction: *pel "dark, dirty"

109. ra "to beat, press, throw away from"

	3. uer- "to turn, to bend; worm" (p. 1152).
	[twigs > rod, cane > beat]

Reconstruction: *wra-(g?) "to beat, bind, throw [?]"

110. s^u...ra.g "to [RAG] the hand = to erase"

	3. uer- "to turn, to bend, worm" (p. 1152).
	ureik- "to turn, wrap, bind" (p. 1158).

Reconstruction: *wra-k "to wipe ?"
	
111. ri; ri.g "to pour, inject into; place upon, impose, lean against;
 throw away from"

	9. au(e)-, aued-, auer- "to wet, to flow, water" (p. 78).
	auer- "water, rain, river" (p. 80).
	uers- "rain, dew" (p. 81).

Reconstruction: *wre^-(s?), wre^-k "to pour"

112. rig7 "to bestow, to grant"

	3. uer- "to turn, to bend, worm" (p. 1152).
	ureik- "to turn, wrap, bind" (p. 1158).
	
Reconstruction: *wr(e)i-k "what turns one's way?"

113. rin2 "bright"

	12. uer- "to burn" (p. 1166).

Reconstruction: *wre-n "bright"

114. a...ru "to [RU] water = to dedicate, give as a votive gift"

	sreu- "to stream" (p. 1003).
	
Reconstruction: *(s)ru "to pour, spill"

115. ru.gu2 "to withstand, oppose"

	1. rek- "to rise up, pole" (p. 863).
	[also: spine, back, etc]

Reconstruction: rok-uC "to withstand, oppose"

116. sa2 "to be equal to, compare with, compete"

	seg^h-, seg^hi-, seg^hu- "to hold, to vanquish, victory"
	(p. 888).
	[cf. Greek skhethros "just, exactly", skhedon "close"].

Reconstruction: *sa(g) "to be close, to fight"

117. sa4 "to (call by) name"

	Maybe?
	2. sekw- "to notice, to see, to show; to say" (p. 897).

Reconstruction: *sa(w) "to say, to name"

118. sa10 "to buy, to sell"

	3. sel- "to take, to seize, to earn, to sell" (p. 899).
	[Celtic: sle^i-]

Reconstruction: *sla(i) "to buy, sell"

119. sal "to be thin, spread"

	3. selp- "fat, butter" (p. 901).

Reconstruction: *sal(p) "spread fat (thinly)"

120. sar "to write, to drive, chase away"

	1. ser- "to flow, move rapidly; fluid, speech" (p. 909).
	
Reconstruction: *sar "to write; to chase away"

121. se3.g/k "to place"

	2. se^(i)-: si-: si^; se^- : s-, sei-: si- "to send away, to
 throw, to drop, to sow; to let go, omit, rest; to reach, to
 tire o.s.; effort, force; seed, tranquil, lasting" (p. 889).

Reconstruction: *se(i)-k "to place into the ground"

122. si "full; to fill"

	seikw- "to pour, drip" (p. 893).
	seip- "to pour, drip" (p. 894).

Reconstruction: *si(w) "to pour, fill"

123. si.g / si.ig "to put into the ground (foundations)?"

	2. se^(i)-: si-: si^; se^- : s-, sei-: si- "to send away, to
 throw, to drop, to sow; to let go, omit, rest; to reach, to
 tire o.s.; effort, force; seed, tranquil, lasting" (p. 889).

Reconstruction: *si^-k "to put into the ground"

124. sig "weak"

	2. se^(i)-: si-: si^; se^- : s-, sei-: si- "to send away, to
 throw, to drop, to sow; to let go, omit, rest; to reach, to
 tire o.s., etc", rather than:
	seug- "sad, sick" (p. 915).

Reconstruction: *si-k "tired"

125. sig3 "to beat (a drum), tremble, smite, shake (the head)"

	2. se^(i)-: si-: si^; se^- : s-, sei-: si- "to send away, to
 throw, to drop, to sow; to let go, cease, rest; to reach, to
 tire o.s.; effort, force; seed, tranquil, lasting" (p. 889).
	[Make a throwing movement with the hand?]

Reconstruction: *si-k "to shake"

126. sig7 / sa7.g "pleasant, beautiful; to create"

	se^k- "to cease; slow, easy"
	Cf. 2. se^i-

Reconstruction: *sek, *sak "pleasant, quiet"

127. sikil "pure, clean"
128. si.il "to split, tear apart; go away, absent o.s."
129. silig "to cease, lay aside one's work"
130. silim "good, healthy"

	Compounds of si "full of..."?
		
131. su "to replace"

	2. seu- (seu-), su(^)- "to give birth, pregnancy; son"
	(p. 913).
	[son > successor > replacement ?]

Reconstruction: *su "to succeed, replace"

132. su/su3 "to drown, go down (of ship), set under water, (with
 kus^7[?]) to devastate?"

	1. seu-, seu-: su^- "juice, wet, to rain, to suck" (p. 912).

Reconstruction: *su-(?) "to drown"

133. su3 "to sprinkle"

	1. seu-, seu-: su^- "juice, wet, to rain, to suck" (p. 912).

Reconstruction: *su-(?) "to sprinkle, wet"

134. su.ub "to rub, to kiss"

	1. seu-, seu-: su^- "juice, wet, to rain, to suck" (p. 912).

Reconstruction: *su(g) "to suck [?]"

135. sud.r "remote, lasting"

	?

136. su3.g "naked, empty, to waste"

	seug- "sad, sick" (p. 915).
	[rather: seugh?]

Reconstruction: *sug "wasted, naked"

137. igi...suh "to [SUH] the eyes = to stare with wide open eyes"
	
	Maybe:
	3. seu-: su-: seue-: su^- "to bend, to turn, to lead on"
	(p. 914).
	but the -h doesn't fit.

Reconstruction: *suh "to open wide?"

138. suh3 "confused"

	4. seu-, seu-t- "to boil, be excited" (p. 914).

Reconstruction: *suh(-t) "excited, confused"

139. sukud "high"

	?

140. sum "to give"

	? 2. sem "one, together, with" (p. 902).
	[A number of Germanic words have developed meanings like
 "togetherness, friendly, kind", etc. "To give" is not among
	them, but possible in principle.]

Reconstruction: *som ? "to give"

141. sur "to make liquid (urinate, have diarrhea...)"

	1. seu-, seu-: su^- "juice, wet, to rain, to suck" (p. 912).

Reconstruction: *su-r "make wet"

142. s^a4 "to wail, resound, moan"

	? (s)k(h)ai-, (s)k(h)ai-d/t- "to strike, to give a blow"
	(p. 917).

Reconstruction: *ska(i) ? "to be beaten, moan"

143. s^ag5 "good, favorable"

	? (s)kek-, skeg- "to jump, to move lively" (p. 922).

Reconstruction: *skak "happy, good"

144. s^ar2 "to mix; to slaughter"

	4. (s)ker, (s)ker-, (s)kre^ "to cut" (p. 938).

Reconstruction: *skar "to cut up"

145. s^e.ba "careless, negligent"

	?

146. s^ed7 "cool"

	skot- "shadow, dark" (p. 957).

Reconstruction: *sket "shadow, cool"

147. s^e.g "obedient, to agree"

	(s)kek-, skeg- "to jump, to move lively" (p. 922).

Reconstruction: *skek "to make jump, run, obedient"

148. s^eg~3 "to rain"

	1. seu-, seu-: su^- "juice, wet, to rain, to suck" (p. 912).
	[Cf. Tocharian swese]

Reconstruction: *swe(s)we [?] "rain"

149. s^eg~6 "to boil"

	4. seu-, seu-t- "to boil, be excited" (p. 914).

Reconstruction: *sew- (*skew- ?) "to boil"

150. s^es^2 "to anoint"

	1. seu-, seu-: su^- "juice, wet, to rain, to suck" (p. 912).

Reconstruction: *swe-sk "to wet, anoint"

151. s^id "to count, recite, read aloud"

	ske(^)i- "to cut, to split" (p. 919)
	ske(^)i-d/t- "to cut, to split" (p. 920, 921).

Reconstruction: *ski-t "to split, tell apart, count"

152. s^u2 "to cover, overwhelm"

	2. (s)keu-, (s)keu-: (s)ku^- "to cover, protect" (p. 951).
	6. ske^u-(t)- "to cut, to split, to scratch" (p. 954).

Reconstruction: *sku "to cover, overwhelm"

153. s^ub "to fall (upon), to throw, to drop"

	skeub(h)-, skeug- "to shoot off, to throw, to shove away"
	(p. 955).
	[*skeu-p not attested]

Reconstruction: *sku-p "to throw, drop, jump"

154. s^um "to slaughter"

	(s)kre^-m-, (s)kr-m- "to cut" (p. 945).

Reconstruction: *skrom "to slaughter"

155. s^ur2 "to be enraged"

	4. (s)ker, (s)ker-, (s)kre^ "to cut" (p. 938).

Reconstruction: *skor "to cut, fight, be angry ?"
	
156. tab "to make double, clutch, clasp to, join"

	steb(h)-, ste^b(h)-: stbh- "pole, trunk, to support, make
	fast, hinder; to step (on), to walk" (p. 1011).

Reconstruction: *tap "to fasten, join, clutch"

157. tag "to touch"

	tag-, (teg-: tog-; t.g-) "to touch, to seize" (p. 1054).

Reconstruction: *ta(n)g "to touch"

158. tag4 [taka?, da.da?] "to leave, divorce, neglect, disregard"

	tak-, take^(i)- "to be silent, to silence, throttle" (p. 1055).

Reconstruction: *tak "to silence, neglect, abandon"

159. tal2 "wide, broad; to spread wide, unfold?"

	2. tel-, tel-, telu- "flat, bottom, earth" (p. 1061).
	
Reconstruction: *tal "wide"

160. tam "to choose"

	?

161. tar "to cut"

	3. ter-, ter-, teri-, tre^i-, tri^-, teru-: treu- "to rub,
	turn, bore, drill; hole" (p. 1071).

Reconstruction: *tar "to cut"

162. te/ti; te.g~/ti.g~ "to approach"

	?

163. te.en "to relax, cool off; cool"

	2. tem()-, temes-, tems-ro- "dark" (p. 1063).

Reconstruction: *te^m(s) "dark, cool"

164. ti.l; sig7 "to be alive, to dwell"

	te^u-, tu-, teue-, tuo^-, tu(^)- "to swell, thick, swollen"
	(p. 1080).
	3. seu-: su-: seue-: su^- "to bend, to turn, to lead on"
	(p. 914).
	sue(^)i- "to bend, to turn, to swing" (p. 1041)

Reconstruction: *twe-l(i), swe-k(i) "to be fat, to live"

165. til "to be completed, finish, cease, perish"

	[Despite the vocalism:]
	tre(^)u- "to flourish, to ripen, come to perfection, end"
	(p. 1095).
	tr-eu-d- "to press, to beat" (p. 1095).

Reconstruction: *tri-l "to ripen, finish; perish"

166. a...tu5 "to [TU5] water = to bathe, wash"

	ta^-, t-; ta^i-, ti-, ti(^)-; [ta^u-], tu-, tu(^)- "to melt
 (away), to wet" (p. 1053).

Reconstruction: *tu "to sprinkle"

167. tu10.b [hub?] "to strike, smite, pile up"

	(s)teup "to strike" (p. 1034).
	1. op- "to work, accomplish, earn; riches" (p. 780)

Reconstruction: *stup?, *hop? "to strike", "to pile up"

168. tu.d/u3.tu.d "to bear, fashion"

	?

169. tud2 "to hit"

	(s)teud-, (s)tu(n)d- "to hit, stab" (p. 1033).

Reconstruction: *tu(n)d :to hit"

170. tuk4 "to tremble"

	(s)teuk- "to hit, beat" (p. 1032).

Reconstruction: tuk-k "to beat, shake"

171. tuku "to have"

	teuk- "sprout, seed, progeny" (p. 1085).

Reconstruction: *tuku-u "to be potent, to have"

172. tu.lu "loose, limp"

	te^u-, tu-, teue-, tuo^-, tu(^)- "to swell, thick, swollen"
	(p. 1080).

Reconstruction: *tu-lu "swelling"

173. tur "small, reduced"

	te^u-, tu-, teue-, tuo^-, tu(^)- "to swell, thick, swollen"
	(p. 1080).
 [Cf. Greek so^ma "body" (< "gedrungenes")].

Reconstruction: tu-r "stump, small"

174. tus^; durun "to sit, live somewhere, seat"

	te^u-, tu-, teue-, tuo^-, tu(^)- "to swell, thick, swollen"
	(p. 1080).
	2. dher- dher- "to hold, to support, to carry" (p. 252).
 [tus^ is derived from "buttocks"].

Reconstruction: *tu-sk, *doron "to sit"

175. u5 "to ride, mount"

	1. ei-, ei-dh-, ei-gh-, i-ta^-, ia^-, ie^-: io^-: i- "to go"
	(p. 293).

Reconstruction: *io(g), *io(s) "to ride"

176. ul4 "to hurry, hasten"

	6. el-, el-: la^-; el-eu(-dh)- "to set in motion, drive; to
	go" (p. 306).

Reconstruction: *ul(h) "to drive on"

177. u19.lu "(supernatural) howl, wind"

	ul-, ulul- "to howl" (p. 1105).
 [Onomatopoeic]

Reconstruction: *ulu(l) "howl"

178. ur3 "to drag over the ground"

	uers- "to creep on the floor" (p. 1169).
	
Reconstruction: *wr(s) "to creep"

179. ur4 "to reap, collect, harvest"
180. uru4, ur11(.ru) "to plow"

	2. uerg^-, ureg^- "work, to do" (p. 1168).

Reconstruction: wr(g), wr(g)u "to work the land: to plow, to harvest"

181. us2 "to follow, join, reach, raise (the neck), build (a nest),
 set (on the ground), lay (the hand) on"

	1. ais- "to wish, to desire, to seek" (p. 16).

Reconstruction: o(i)s- "to seek, reach"

182. us^2; ug5 "to die, kill"

	?

183. za "to make noise"

 (s)trep-, (s)treb- "to make noise, to cry, etc." (p. 1037).

Reconstruction: *stra(b) "to make noise"

184. zah2 "to run away, flee"

	(s)ta^i- "to steal, furtive, secret" (p. 1010).

Reconstruction: *stah(i) "to sneak away"

185. zal "to pass (time), spend the day"

	3. stel- "to set (in order), still, stiff" (p. 1019)

Reconstruction: *stal "to be still, to stall, to pass time"

186. zalag "bright"

	2. ste(^)r- "star"
	4. ster- "stripe, ray, arrow", ster-: stre^, strei-, streu-
 "to graze, brush against" (p. 1028).

Reconstruction: *stre-lak "bright"

187. ze2.er, zi.r "to tear out, break"

	5. ster-, ster-: stre^, steru-, streu- "to enlarge, throw
	about" (p. 1029).

Reconstruction: ste^r "to throw, break"

188. zig3 "to rise, stand up"

	sta^-: st-, si-sta^-, etc. "to stand, to set" (p. 1004).
	sta^k-, stek- "to stand, to set" (p. 1011).

Reconstruction: *sti-k "to stand (up)"

189. zil "to peel off, strip off"

	4. ster- "stripe, ray, arrow", ster-: stre^, strei-, streu-
	"to graze, brush against" (p. 1028).

Reconstruction: *stri-l "to graze, peel"

190. zil2 "pleasing"

	stilp-, stilb- "to shine, look at" (p. 1035).

Reconstruction: *stil(b) "shiny, pleasing"

191. zu "to know"

	1. (s)teu- "to hit, to beat, to strike" (p. 1032).
	(s)teud-, (s)tu(n)d- "to hit, stab" (p. 1033).
 [Cf. Latin studium]

Reconstruction: *stu(d) "to have hit, to know" [?]

192. zuh "to steal"

	(s)ta^i- "to steal, furtive, secret" (p. 1010).

Reconstruction: *stoh(i) "to steal"


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