LINGUIST List 7.1738

Mon Dec 9 1996

Sum: Phonological phrase

Editor for this issue: Anthony Rodrigues Aristar <>


  1. D.B. den Ouden, summary phonological phrase

Message 1: summary phonological phrase

Date: Mon, 9 Dec 1996 15:16:13 +0100
From: D.B. den Ouden <>
Subject: summary phonological phrase

Dear Linguists,

Some time ago, I posted a query on the List, asking for references
and remarks on the `phonological phrase'. Below, I will give a
summary of the responses I got, which were very helpful to
me. I will also give some more references I found. For their valuable
responses, I wish to thank:

Erwin Marsi <>
David Gaatone <>
Vera Kamphuis <>
Charles Scott <>
John Reighard <>

The reason I am interested in the phonological phrase is that it has
been suggested to be a unit of phonological encoding, an articulatory
buffer, but at the same time largely dependent on syntactic surface
structure ("how largely?" is what most of the discussion is about!).
I am currently working on phonological encoding errors in (conduction)
aphasia. If `my' patients make more errors with lexical words than
they do with function words, it may well be the case that this is
because lexical words are what (phonological) phrases depend upon. It
has been suggested that the disturbances of some patients "may not
involve the formulation of the phonological forms of single words, but
rather the insertion of phonological forms into syntactic
structures [...]" (p. 124, David Caplan & Gloria Waters, `Issues
Arising Regarding the Nature and Consequences of Reproduction
Conduction Aphasia', in: S.E. Kohn (Ed.) (1992) Conduction
Aphasia). In the speech production process, the construction of the
phonological phrase could then be the `level' on which this occurs!

- ------
Nespor, Marina et Irene Vogel. 1986. Prosodic phonology. Studies in
generative grammar, 28. Dordrecht: Foris.

Selkirk, Elisabeth O. 1984. Phonology and syntax: the relation of
sound and structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

As far as French is concerned, Selkirk suggested that the domain of
liaison is determined by syntactic structure, in particular that it
occurs between specifiers and syntactic heads, but not between heads
and their complements (thus providing an explanation for liaison in
"un savant Anglais" and absence of liaison in "un savant anglais". If
I'm not mistaken, Nespor and Vogel assume the correctness of this
analysis, but Yves-Charles Morin documented serious problems with it
 Morin, Yves-Charles et Jonathon Kaye. 1982. The syntactic bases
for French liaison. Journal of linguistics 18.291-330.

John Reighard

- --------

a string of words bearing only one stress.for instance in french: a
chain of clitics +verb:je le lui donne, with only one stress on the
o of donne. hope this will at least partly satisfy you.

david gaatone

- --------
 WARREN, P., GRABE, E. & NOLAN, F. (1995) Prosody, phonology and
parsing in closure ambiguities. Language and Cognitive Processes, 10
(5), 457-486.

Vera Kamphuis

- ---------

Booij (1996), The phonology of Dutch.

Bachenko, Fitzpatrick (1990) A computational grammar of discourse-
neutral prosodic phrasing in English, Computational Linguistics 16(3),
155- 170. (a.o. phon. phrase construction of English)

Ferreira (1993), Creation of prosody during sentence production,
Psychological review, vol. 100, no. 2, 233-253. (Good introduction,
with references to other works)

Gee, Grosjean (1983, Performance structures: a psycholinguistic and
linguistic appraisal, Cognitive psychology 15, 411-458.

Hayes, B. (1986) The prosodic hierarchy in meter.
In: Kiparsky, Youmans (eds.) Phonetics and phonology, vol. 1, Rhythm
and meter. San Diego etc., Academic Press, Inc., 201-220.

Neijt, A. (1984) Fie-vorming, In: Haan, Trommelen, Zonneveld, Van
periferie naar kern, Dordrecht, Foris publications, 169-175.

Truckenbrodt, H. (1995). Phonological phrases: their relation to
syntax, focus and prominence. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge,

Erwin Marsi

- -----------

I know this term primarily from the era of Trager-Smith phonology and
phonological syntax. A phonological phrase is that sequence of
segments and internal junctures bounded by one or another of the
terminal junctures, i.e. double cross juncture, double bar juncture,
or single bar juncture. Such a sequence would also have a pitch
contour, e.g. 2 3 1# (the normal tone-rising tone-falling tone, with
further down shift at the end (the #) all of which is typical of the
intonation on declarative clauses or WH questions in English. I
suggest you consult Trager & Smith, Outline of English Structure
(1951) or A.A. Hill, Introduction to Linguistic Structures (1958) for
further discussion of this.

Charles Scott <>

- -----------

Other references:

 CUTLER, A. (1983b) Speaker's conceptions of the function of
prosody. In: A. Cutler & D.R. Ladd (Eds.), Prosody: Models and
Measurements (Heidelberg: Springer).
 DOWNING, G. (1970) Syntactic Structure and Phonological
Phrasing in English. Ph.D. diss. (University of Texas, Austin).
 FERREIRA, F. (1991) Effects of length and syntactic complexity
on initiation times for prepared utterances. Journal of Memory and
Language, 30, 210-233.
 GARRETT, M.F. (1982) Production of speech: observations from
normal and pathological language use: In: A. Ellis (Ed.), Normality
and Pathology in Cognitive Functions (London: Academic Press)
 GARRETT, M.F. (1984) The organization of processing structure
for language production. Applications to aphasic speech. In: D.
Caplan, A.R. Lecours & A. Smith (Eds.), Biological Perspectives on
Language (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
 GHINI, M. (1993) -formation in Italian: A new proposal.
Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics, 12-2, 41-78.
 HAYES, B. (1989) The Prosodic Hierarchy in Meter. In: P.
Kiparsky & G. Youmans (Eds.), Rhythm and Meter (Orlando: Academic
 HELSLOOT, C.J. (1995) Metrical Prosody: A Template-and-
constraint Approach to Phonological Phrasing in Italian: based on the
poetry of Giuseppe Ungaretti and Eugenio Montale. doc. diss.
University of Amsterdam (Den Haag: Holland Academic Graphics)
 HULST, H. VAN DER & N. SMITH (Eds.) (1982) The Structure of
Phonological Representations. Part II (Dordrecht: Foris).
 INKELAS, S. & ZEC, D. (Eds.) (1990) The Phonology-Syntax
Connection (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press).
 KAISSE, E.M. (1985) Connected Speech. The Interaction of Syntax
and Phonology (Orlando: Academic Press).
 LADD, D.R. (1986) Intonational phrasing: The case for recursive
prosodic structure. Phonology Yearbook, 3, 311-340.
 LEVELT, W.J.M. (1989) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation
(Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press)
 MIYARA, S. (1981) Phonological Phrase and Phonological
Reduction. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in
Linguistics, 7. 154-183.
 NESPOR, M. & VOGEL, I. (1979) Clash Avoidance in Italian.
Linguistic Inquiry, 10, 467-482.
 NESPOR, M. & VOGEL, I. (1989) On clashes and lapses. Phonology,
8, 261-290.
 SELKIRK, E.O. (1978) On prosodic structure and its relation to
syntactic structure. Paper presented at the Conference on Mental
Representation in Phonology. IULC, 1980. Published in: T. Fretheim
(Ed.) (1981) Nordic Prosody II (Trondheim: TAPIR), 111-140.
 SELKIRK, E.O. (1980) Prosodic domains in phonology: Sanskrit
revisited. In: M. Aronoff and M.-L. Kean (Eds.), Juncture (Studia
Linguistica et Philologica 7) (Saratoga, California: Anma Libri).
 SELKIRK, E.O. (1986) On derived domains in sentence phonology.
Phonology Yearbook, 3, 371-405.


Dirk-Bart den Ouden


Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Department of Dutch
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
P.O. Box 716
Tel: +31 (0)50 - 3637412

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