LINGUIST List 7.250

Fri Feb 16 1996

Sum: Language Attitude

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  1. Xu Daming, SUMM: LANGUAGE ATTITUDE

Message 1: SUMM: LANGUAGE ATTITUDE

Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 23:38:36 +0800
From: Xu Daming <xudamingpacific.net.sg>
Subject: SUMM: LANGUAGE ATTITUDE

This is a summary of the results of my query "Literature on Survey of
Attitude" posted on 09 January 1996.

I would like to thank the following people for their replies to my
query on "Literature on Survey of Attitude":

Dane Archer
Annick De Houwer
Rianne Doeleman 
Susan M. Ervin-Tripp 
Suzanne K. Hilgendorf
Hans Jorgen Ladegaard
Chao-Chih Liao
Ute Smit
Jan Tent
Robert S. Williams
Dongying D. Wu

NOTE: If you replied to me and your name is not in the above list, it
means that I did not receive your reply. It could have happened because
of problems with the system I was using. I appologize for that. You
can reply to me again, if you wish, now that I am using a different
system, which so far has had a good track of mail-receiving record.

The following is a bibliography compiled on the basis of the replies I
received plus my own library search:

A Bibliography on Language Attitude Studies:

Ajzen, I. 1988. Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Milton Keynes:
Open University Press.

Baker, Colin. 1992. Attitudes and language. Clevedon
[England]/Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

Ball, P. & H. Giles 1982, Speech style and employment selection: the
matched-guise technique. In G.M. Breakwell, H. Foot & R. Gilmour
(eds.), Social Psychology: A Practical Manual. London: Macmillan Press

Bradac, J.J. 1990. Language Attitudes and Impression Formation. In
H. Giles & W.P. Robinson (eds.), Handbook of Language and Social
Psychology.

Cargile, A.C., Giles, H., Ryan, E.B. & Bradac, J.J. 1994. Language
attitudes as a social process: A conceptual model and new
directions. Language & Communication, 14, 3, 211-236.

Coupland, N., Giles, H. & Wiemann, J.M. 1991. "Miscommunication" and
problematic talk. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.

Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. 1993. The psychology of attitudes. Fort
Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Edwards, J.R. 1985. Language, Society and Identity. Oxford:
Blackwell.

Edwards, John. 1994. Multilingualism. London & New York: Routledge,
'Language attitude', 97-102).

Fasold, Ralph. 1984. The sociolinguistics of society. (Ch. 6 Language
attitudes). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Feifel, Karl-Eugen. 1994. Language Attitudes in Taiwan. A Social
Evaluation of Language in Social Change. Taipei: The Crane Publishing
Co. Ltd.

Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. 1975. Belief, attitude, intention and
behaviour; An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley.

Genesee, F. and N. Holobow 1978. Children's reactions to variations in
second language competence. In Paradis, Michel (ed.) Aspects of
Bilingualism. Columbia, South Carolina: Hornbeam Press, 185-201.

Giles, Howard and Ellen B. Ryan (eds.). 1982. Attitudes towards
language variation. Social and applied contexts. London: Edward
Arnold.

Giles, Howard, Miles Hewstone, and Peter Ball. 1983. "Language
attitudes in multilingual settings: prologue with priorities." Journal
of multilingual and multicultural development 4, 2&3, 81-96.

Giles, H., Hewstone, M., Ryan, E., & Johnson 1987. Research on
Language Attitudes. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar & K.J. Mattheier (eds.),
Sociolinguistics. An International Handbook of the Science of Language
and Society. vol. I.

Giles, H. & N. Coupland 1991. Language: Contexts and
Consequences. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, (chapter 2).

Giles, Howard. 1992. "Current and future directions in
sociolinguistics: a social psychological contribution."
Sociolinguistics today. International perspectives. Eds. by Kingsley
Bolton and Helen Kwok. London/New York: Routledge, 361-368.

Grosjean, F. 1982. Life with two languages: An introduction to
bilingualism. Cambridge, Mass./London, England. (Attitudes towards
language groups and languages, 117-126).

Hampson, S.E. 1988. The construction of personality: An
introduction. (Second edition). London: Routledge.

Harlech-Jones, Brian. 1990. You taught me language: the implementation
of English as a medium of instruction in Namibia. Cape Town: Oxford
University Press.

Holmes, Janet. 1992. An introduction to sociolinguistics. London & New
York: Longman. (Attitudes and applications, 344-368).

Jonas, K. & Hewstone, M. 1986. The assessment of national stereotypes:
A methodological study. The journal of social psychology, 126, 6,
745-754.

LIAO, Chao-chih and Yu-hwei E. LII-SHIH. 1993. University
undergraduates' attitudes on Code-mixing and sex
stereotypes. Pragmatics. Vol. 3. No. 4. Pp. 425-449.

Lyczak, Richard, Gail Fu, and Audrey Ho. 1979. Language attitudes
among university students in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Language Papers,
ed. by Robert Lord, 62-71. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

McRae, Kenneth D. 1983. Conflict and compromise in multilingual
societies: Switzerland. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University
Press.

Miller, D.C. 1991. Handbook of research design and social
measurement. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Mparutsa, Cynthia, Juliet Thondhlana, and Nigel T. Crawhall. 1992. "An
initial investigation into language attitudes of secondary school
students in Zimbabwe." Language and society in Africa. The theory and
practice of sociolinguistics. Ed. by Robert K. Herbert. Cape Town:
Wits University Press, 235-245.

Oppenheim, A.N. 1966. Questionnaire design and attitude
measurement. London: Heinemann.

Oppenheim, B. 1982. A exercise in attitude measurement. In
G.M. Breakwell, H. Foot & R. Gilmour (eds.), Social Psychology: A
Practical Manual. London: Macmillan Press.

Oskamp, S. 1991. Attitudes and opinions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall.

Peabody, D. & Goldberg, L.R. 1989. Some determinants of factor
structures from personality trait descriptors. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 57, 3, 552- 567.

Pennington, Martha C. 1994. English and Chinese in Hong Kong: pre-1997
language attitudes. World Englishes 13:1

Petty, R.E. & Cacioppo, J.T. 1981. Attitudes and persuasion: Classic
and contemporary approaches. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company
Publishers.

Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria R. 1995. Lectal variation in the media and the
classroom: A preliminary analysis of attitudes. The English language
in Singapore: Implications for teaching, ed. by Teng S.C. & Ho M.L.,
53-67. Singapore: Singapore Association of Applied Linguistics.

Poplack, Shana. 1993. Variation theory and language contact. American
dialect research, ed. by Dennis R. Preston,
251-86. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rabel-Heymann, Lili 1978. But how does a bilingual feel? Reflections
on linguistic attitudes of immigrant academics. In Paradis, Michel
(ed.) Aspects of Bilingualism. Columbia, South Carolina: Hornbeam
Press. 220-228

Rietveld, T. & Hout, R. van 1993. Statistical techniques for the study
of language and language behaviour. Berlin: Moutin de Gruyter.

Roos, Riana. 1990. "Language attitudes in the second language
situation." Per linguam 6, 2: 25-30.

Ryan, Ellen and Howard Giles 1982. Attitudes toward Language
Variation: Social and Applied Contexts_ Arnold,

Ryan, E., Giles, H. & M. Hewstone 1988. The Measurement of Language
Attitudes. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar & K.J. Mattheier (eds.)
Sociolinguistics. An International Handbook of the Science of Language
and Society. vol. II.

Saint-Jacques, Bernard 1978. Elicitation of cultural stereotypes
through the presentation of voices in two languages. In Paradis,
Michel (ed.) Aspects of Bilingualism. Columbia, South Carolina:
Hornbeam Press, 179-184.

Scherer, K.R. & Eckman, P. 1982. Handbook of methods in nonverbal
behavior research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schuman, Howard and Stanley Presser. 1981. Questions and answers in
attitude surveys. Experiments on question, form, wording, and
context. New York: Academic Press.

Shuy, Roger W. and Ralph W. Fasold, (eds.). 1973. Language attitudes:
current trends and prospects. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University
Press.

Smit, Ute. 1996 (forthcoming). A new English for a new South Africa?
Language attitudes, language planning and education. Vienna:
Braumueller.

Williams, Frederick. 1976. Explorations of the linguistic attitudes of
teachers. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers Inc.

Woelck, Wolfgang, 1985. 'Language attitude studies. Problems and
suggestions'. In: Hartig, Matthias, ed., Perspektiven der angewandten
Soziolinguistik, Tuebingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, pp. 35-48.

Young, Douglas N. et al. 1991. Language planning and attitudes towards
the role and status of languages, especially English, in Western Cape
secondary schools. (Unpub. report) University of Cape Town.

Zahn, Christopher J. and Robert Hopper. 1985. "Measuring language
attitudes: the speech evaluation instrument." Journal of language and
social psychology 4, 2: 113-123.

Susan Ervin-Tripp also made the following comments, which I think
should be included in this summary:

Among many distinctions to be made, it may be useful where there are
organized, politicized attitude issues to distinguish between
"conscious" and "unconscious" judgments of attitude.

Conscious judgments occur when the respondent knows you are asking
attitudes about a particular language or group, as in opinion
questionnaires.

"Unconscious" attitudes or biases show up when the respondent believes
the task is different but reveals attitudes in choices. A nice example
of the last method is the series of studies using the speech guise
methods developed by Wallace Lambert in Montreal. Studies using these
measures to assess language contact include Kathryn Woolard's work in
Barcelona and many others.assess language contact include Kathryn
Woolard's work in Barcelona and many others.

The speech guise method uses bidialectal or bilingual individuals, who
make two similar language samples, one in each "speech guise". These
samples from different individuals are edited onto a judgment
tape. One can use anytwo similar language samples, one in each "speech
guise". These samples from different individuals are edited onto a
judgment tape. One can use any variety of judgment dimensions of
interest. The judges are asked to judge particular individual voices
but of course don't realize the same speaker occurs twice, so the
differences in "voice" judgements are in fact reflections of
language/dialect attitudes.


Whether conscious attitudes or unconscious ones influence the outcomes
you are studying isn't clear and you could find out.
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