LINGUIST List 7.345

Tue Mar 5 1996

Sum: Fishman References on English-only

Editor for this issue: Annemarie Valdez <>


  1. IUTZI-MITCHELL ROY _, SUM: Fishman refs on English-only

Message 1: SUM: Fishman refs on English-only

Date: Mon, 04 Mar 1996 14:14:44 -0900
Subject: SUM: Fishman refs on English-only

On 26 Jan 1996 I posted the following query:

> Subject: Seeking Fishman refs
> (cross-posted to Endangered-Languages-L and Linguist)
> I am seeking the references to what I believe are two articles by
> Fishman (at least one of which had co-author[s]). Both appeared ca.
> 1990-94, if I recall correctly. One was Fishman's interpretation of
> social and political forces underlying the English-only movement in the
> U.S.A. in the late 1980s. The other was a statistical analysis,
> comparing multilingualism with economic development, civil strife etc.,
> using nation-states as the units of analysis. If you have the
> to these journal articles, please reply by private e-mail; I will post
> the citations to this list later. Thank you.

My thanks to those who contributed references:
 John DeVries <>
 Russ Bernard <>
 Jonathan Dembling <>
 John David Duncan <>
 Jon Reyhner <>
 Barbara Pearson <>
 James Crawford <>
 Daniel Nettle <>
 Ana Roca <>

Following are (edited) versions of the references sent to me.
I cannot vouch for their veracity. Thanks again for the help.
- roy--
Roy Iutzi-Mitchell <>

Fishman, Joshua A.
1988 "'English only': its ghosts, myths and dangers"
 _International Journal of the Sociology of Language_ 74, 125-140.

Joshua Fishman (1992). "The Displaced Anxieties of Anglo-Americans." In
James Crawford (Ed.). Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official
English Controversy (pp, 165-170). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Abridged from "'English Only': Its Ghosts, Myths, and Dangers")

Fishman, Joshua A. 1991. _Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and
Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languags. Clevedon:
Multilingual Matters.

There was a festschrift for Fishman in 1993. the volume is "language
planning". The article you're looking for might be in there.

Fishmans' book _Language & Ethnicity in Minority Sociolinguistic
Perspective_ (1989, Multilingual Matters) contains two articles which
may be the ones you're looking for: "Cross-Polity Perspective on the
Importance of Linguistic Heterogeneity as a 'Contributory Factor' in
Civil Strife", and "Bias and anti-intellectualism: the frenzied
fiction of 'English Only'"

J.A. Fishman (1991). Interpolity perspective on the relationships
between linguistic heterogeneity, civil strife and per capita gross
national product. _Applied Linguistics_, 1:5-18

Fishman's international comparisons on the social impact of linguistic
diversity is "Empirical Explorations of Two Popular Assumptions:
Inter-Polity Perspective on the Relationships between Linguistic
Heterogeneity, Civil Strife, and Per Capita Gross National Product,"
in _Learning in Two Languages: From Conflict to Consensus in the
Reorganization of Schools_, ed. Gary Imhoff (Transaction Publishers,

J. Fishman (1968) "Some contrasts between linguistically homogenous and
linguistically heterogenous polities." In J. Fishman, C. Ferguson, and J.
Gupta, (eds.), _Language Problems of Developing Nations_, pp. 53-68.
New York: John Wiley. An important follow up is:
J. Pool (1972) "National development and language diversity"
In J. Fishman (ed.) _Advances in the Sociology of Language_,
vol.2, pp. 213-230. The Hague: Mouton.

An article by Fishman, dealing with economics, in: Ana Roca and
CONTACT AND DIVERSITY, pp. 9-19. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993.

Roy Iutzi-Mitchell, Asst. Professor
Anthropology, Education & Inupiat Studies
Ilisagvik College P.O. Box 749
Barrow, Alaska 99723 U.S.A.
ph907.852.0416 fax907.852.0418
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