LINGUIST List 8.1509

Mon Oct 20 1997

Sum: Non-IE HAVE

Editor for this issue: Martin Jacobsen <>


  1. Ivan BIRKS, Non-IE HAVE

Message 1: Non-IE HAVE

Date: Mon, 20 Oct 1997 17:27:13 +0100
From: Ivan BIRKS <>
Subject: Non-IE HAVE

Two weeks ago I posted a query on non-IE HAVEs.

First of all I would like to thank the following for their replies.

"Alan R. King" <>
Alfredo Arnaiz <>
Asya Pereltsvaig <>
Colin Whiteley <> (Francis Bond) (David Beck) (Suzette Haden Elgin) (Imran Ho)
Jakob Dempsey <>
Eloise Jelinek <>
Diana Gainer <> (John K. Hellermann)
"Larry Trask" <>
Line Hove Mikkelson <>
Louis Boumans <>
Malvina Nissim <>
Marc Fryd <>
Mark Donohue <>
Misha Becker <>
"Pagliere, Alan" <>
Philip Franz Seitz <>
Ross Clark <>

The nearest thing to what I was looking for is Basque IZAN/UKAN :
EDUKI. These seem to be fairly similar to Spanish HABER : TENER,
which given geographical factors is perhaps not too surprising.

Below, you will find a list of the other forms people were kind enough
to send me, along with a few bibliographical references. Where not
otherwise stated, I understand that they correspond to some form of
copular relation associated with a case marking or preposition. They
may not be transitive, but they made for fascinating reading all the
same. Given, however, that this search was intended to unearth a
non-indoeuropean transitive HAVE, and that Basque is a bit too close
to home, my query would appear to have failed in its purpose :-(

Thanks again to all those who replied,

Ivan Birks


The prefix '?ebs-' in Lushootseed, a Salishan language (Pacific
Northwest of North America) eg ?ebs+bibedbeda? ti?e? sgwelub
have+children this pheasant 'pheasant had children' (was children-ed)

_aru/iru_ `be/have' in Japanese, which is also used to show existence
or location.

ADA in Malay (also location, and, more marginally, existence)

YEO in Chinese

VAR in Turkish

VOLT in Hungarian

The additive suffix '-lla' in Finnish

The particle cend ~ cand in "most modern Arabic dialects/lges",
historically a preposition which has developed features in common with
transitive verbs.

HOTO in Tukang Besi, an Austronesian language of central Indonesia-
almost transitive but not quite.

co' in Vietnamese

/lekina/ in the Mele-Fila language of central Vanuatu (a Polynesian

Plus useful data on Spanish, Russian and Ozark English...

I can also refer those interested to a similar query a fex years ago,
principally concerned with possession, existentials and locatives.


Bibliography (not for individual languages):

Freeze, R. (1992), Existentials and other Locatives, Language 68:3

Mahajan, A. (1994), The Ergativity Parameter: have-be alternation,
Word Order and Split Ergativity" NELS 24, M. Gonzalez (ed) UMass

Mahajan, A. (1995) Universal Grammar and the Typology of Ergative
Languages, to appear in a volume edited by A. Alexiadou & T. Hall

Dechaine, R., T. Hoekstra & J. Rooryck, Augmented and Non-augmented
HAVE, in Nash & Tsoulas, eds, Proceedings of Language and Grammar,
Universite de Paris VIII, 1994.

Ritter, E. & S. Rosen (1991) Causative 'have', NELS 21.

Belvin, R. (1993) The two causative haves are the two possessive
haves, CLS 29.

Kayne, R. (1993) Toward a modular theory of auxiliary selection,
Studia Linguistica 47:1.

Marcel den Dikken has also done some interesting work on have, and
there is a special edition of Lingua out now, which is entirely
devoted to have and possessive constructions.

(1996) Inside Events: The Non-Possessive Meanings of Possession
Predicates and the Semantic Conceptualization of Events. University of
Southern California.

Bernard Comrie "Lge Universals and Linguistic Typology".

Hans-Jakob Seiler under the aegis of the UNITYP

- -----------------------------
Ivan Birks

Universite Paris III,
Institut du Monde Anglophone,
13, rue Santeuil,
75231 Paris cedex 05
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