LINGUIST List 8.1779

Fri Dec 12 1997

Sum: Critical Period References

Editor for this issue: James German <>


  1. Martin Wynne, critical period summary

Message 1: critical period summary

Date: Wed, 10 Dec 1997 12:14:01 +0000 (GMT)
From: Martin Wynne <>
Subject: critical period summary

One month ago I mailed the following query:

 Can anyone please recommend any recent papers about evidence for or
 against a critical period in the acquisition of SECOND LANGUAGE

and I received many helpful responses which I have forwarded to a very
grateful postgraduate student. Here is an (unchecked) list of the
references that were recommended:

Asher and Garcia (date?), in Krashen, Scarcella, and Long (1982)
 _Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Acquisition_.
Bialystock, Ellen (1997). The structure of age: in search of
 barriers to SLA. Second Lg Research 13.2 116-137
Birdsong forthcoming (several people mentioned this, but no further
 details were given - even the editor was too modest)
Bongaerts, T., B. Planken and E.Schils. (1995). Can late learners
 attain a native accent in a foreign language? A test of the
 Critical Period Hypothesis. In David Singleton and Zsolt Lengyel
 (eds.)The Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon:
 Multilingual Matters.
Bongaerts, Theo et al, 1997, in Studies in Second Language
 Acquisition. The major works in L2 phonetics/phonology are cited in
 the list of references. In this paper, Bongaerts and his colleagues
 show considerable evidence of nativelikeness, thus weakening the
 case for CP.
Chambers, J.K. 1992. Dialect Acquisition. Language.

Drews, Aaron E,

Flege (1995) Second language speech learning: Theory, Findings, and
 problems. In W. Strange (Ed), Speech perception and linguistic
 experience: Issues in cross-language speech research (pp. 233-277).
Flege, Frieda & Nozawa (1997). Amount of native-language (L1) use
 affects the pronunciation of an L2. Journal of Phonetics 25,
Flege, J.E., Takagi, N, Mann, V. (1995) Japanese Adults can Learn to
 Produce English /r/ and /l/ Accurately. "Language and Speech, 38"
Flege, James Emil; Munro, Murray J.; MacKay, Ian,R.A. (1995) Effects
 of age of second-language learning on the production of English
 consonants. Speech Communication. Vol 16(1) 1-26.
Flege, James. E. (1991) Perception and production: the relevance of
 phonetic input to L2 phonological learning. In T. Huebner and
 C.A. Ferguson (eds.) Crosscurrents in Second Language Acquisition.
 Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Flege, Munro and Mackay 1995. Factors affecting strength of perceived
 foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustic Society
 of America, 76 (3), 708-721.
Ioup, G., Boustagui, E., Tigi, M.E., and Moselle, M. (1994)
 Reexamining the Critical Period Hypothesis: a case study of
 successful adult SLA in a naturalistic environment. "Studies in
 Second Language Acquisition, 16" 73-98.
Johnson and Newport (1989) "Critical Period Effects in Second Language
 Learning: The Influence of Maturational State on the Acquisition of
 English as a Second Language".
Kim, Karl et al., "Distinct cortical areas associated with native and
 second languages." It appeared in Nature, vol. 388, July 10, 1997
 p. 171 and following.
Logan, J.S., Lively, S.E., and Pisoni, D.B. (1991) Training Japanese
 Listeners to Identify English /r/ and /l/: a first report. "Journal
 of the Acoustical Society of America, 89" 874-896.
Long (1990). Maturational constraints on language develpment. Studies
 in Second Language Acquisition, 12 (3), 251-285.
Long, M. (1993) Second language acquisition as a function of age:
 Research findings and methodological issues. In K. Hyltenstam and
 A. Viberg (eds.) Progression and Regression in Language.
 Cambridge: CUP.
McLaughlin (1984) _Second Language Acquisition in Childhood: Volume 1.
 Preschool Children_. (there is also a volume 2, for older children)
Munro,Murray J.; Flege,James Emil; MacKay, Ian R.A. (1996) The effects
 of age of second language learning on the production of English
 vowels. Applied Psycholinguistics. Vol 17(3) 313-334.
Obler, L. (1993) Neurolinguistic aspects of second language
 development and attrition. In K. Hyltenstam and A.Viberg (eds.)
 Progression and Regression in Language. Cambridge: CUP..
Patkowski, M. (1990). Age and accent in a second language. Reply to
 James Emil Flege. Applied Linguistics 11:73-89.
Patkowski, Mark, 1884, "The critical age hypothesis and interlanguage
 phonology" (and references therein) in First and Second Language
 Phonology edited by Mehmet Yavas.
Riney, T. (1990) Age and open syllable production in interlanguage
 phonology. In H. Burmeister and P. Rounds (eds.) Variability in
 Second Language Acquisition. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of the
 Second Language Research Forum. Vol. 2. Eugene: Department of
 Linguistics, University of Oregon.
Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle (1978) "The Critical Period for Language
 Acquisition: Evidence from Second Language Learning".
Strange, Winifred (Ed.). 1995. Speech Perception and Linguistic
 Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research. Baltimore: York
 Press. ISBN 0-912752-36-x
White and Genesee. 1996. How native is near-native? The issue of
 ultimate attainment in adult SLA. Second Lg Research 12, 233-265
Wode, H. (1993). The development of phonological abilities. In
 Kenneth Hyltenstam and Ake Viberg(eds.). Progression and Regression
 in Language. Cambridge: CUP.

Many thanks to:

Alice S. Horning <>
Sarah Rosenzweig <>
Marc Picard <>
Lynn Eubank <>
Ineke Mennen <>
Aaron Drews <>
David Birdsong <>
Lynn Santelmann <santelmannWaisman.Wisc.Edu>
Martha Young-Scholten <>
Yutaka Anraku <>
Tom Sawallis <>

and sorry to anyone who I've forgotten to list here.

Martin Wynne
Lancaster University & Goldsmiths College, London
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