LINGUIST List 8.844

Sat Jun 7 1997

Sum: Sao Tome Creole

Editor for this issue: Ann Dizdar <>


  1. Ana Lucia Santos, Summary: Sao Tome Creole

Message 1: Summary: Sao Tome Creole

Date: Fri, 6 Jun 1997 18:18:49 +0100 (WET DST)
From: Ana Lucia Santos <>
Subject: Summary: Sao Tome Creole

Some weeks ago, I posted the following query:

Is there any information about work done on S.Tome creole?
I am writing this message on behalf of a friend but I will post a
summary of the answers to the list.

Thanks to all who answered:

Michael Aceto
Edward H. Bendix
Israel Cohen
Lance Eccles
Gerardo A. Lorenzino
Mikael Parkvall
Norval Smith

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Dear Ana Lucia,

I don't know of very many recent things on Sao Tome, but there is some
excellent work from the last 30 years or so:

1) Studies in Portuguese and Creole/Marius F. Valkhoff

2) Miscelanea Luso-Africana/edited by Valkhoff

3) The creole of Sao Tome/Luis Ivens Ferraz

I hope this helps.

Best wishes,

Michael Aceto

- -------------------------------

The following has done linguistic fieldwork on Sao Tome and can give you
good information: Gerardo Lorenzino <>.

- -------------------------------

Ana Lucia Santos,

John Holm in his Pidgins and Creoles (Cambridge UP, 1988-89), vol. 2 pp.
278-280, mentions Sao Tome creole. He makes reference to the following book:

L Ivens Ferraz. The Creole of Sao Tome. Witwatersrand University Press,
Johannesburg, 1979.

Lance Eccles

 &&& &&&
 &&& Lance Eccles &&&
 &&& School of Modern Languages &&&
 &&& Macquarie University &&&
 &&& NSW 2109 &&&
 &&& Australia &&&
 &&& fax +61 2 9797 0003 &&&
 &&& phone +61 2 9797 9925 &&&
 &&& &&&
 &&& voicemail 9850 7023 &&&
 &&& &&&
 &&& MY HOMEPAGE: &&&
 &&& &&&

- ------------------------------

	I will be happy to send you a bibliography on the language and
history of Sao Tome Creole. It's part of the bibliography I compiled for
my dissertation on Angolar Creole Portuguese, one of the three creole
dialects spoken on Sao Tome and Principe. I can't send it to you via
email because it will arrive garbled and difficult to read. If you are
interested let me know and send me your address.
	As a preview, tell your friend that the standard reference on Sao
Tome Creole is Ferraz (1979) "The Creole of Sao Tome".

Gerardo Augusto Lorenzino
Department of Spanish and Portuguese
Yale University

- -------------------------------

Dear Ana,

Here are some suggestions for further reading on Sao Tomense:

Carvalho, Jose Goncalo Herculano de (1981): Deux langues creoles: Le
criol du Cap Vert et le forro de S. Tome. Biblos 57, pp 1-15

Ferraz, L. & M. F. Valkhoff (1975): A comparative study of So-tomense
and Cabo-verdiano creole. In Valkhoff (ed.) (pp 15-39).

Ferraz, Luis (1976): A origem e desenvolvimento de quatro crioulos
portugueses do Golfo da Guine. Rev. Bras. Ling. 3 (2) (pp 70-76).

Ferraz, Luis Ivens (1974): A linguistic appraisal of Angolar. In
Memoriam Antonio Jorge Dias, vol. 2 (pp 177-186). Lisbon: Inst. de
Alta Cultura/Junta de Investigacies do Ultramar.

Ferraz, Luis Ivens (1979): The creole of Sao Tome. Johannesburg:
Witwatersrand University Press.

Ferraz, Luis Ivens (1983): The origin and development of four creoles
in the Gulf of Guinea. Ellen Woolford & William Washabaugh (eds.): The
social contaxt of creolisation (pp 120-125). Ann Arbor: Karoma.

Ferraz, Luiz (1976): The Origin and Development of Four Creoles in the
Gulf of Guinea. African Studies 35 (1), pp 33-38.

Ferraz, Luiz Ivens (1978): The Creole of Sao Tome. African Studies 37,
pp 3-68+234-84

Ferraz, Luiz Ivens (1987): Portuguese Creoles of West Africa. GILBERT,
Glenn (ed): Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John
E. Reinecke (pp 337-360). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Granda, German de (1976): Un planteamiento sociohistorico del problema
de la formacion del criollo portugues de Africa occidental. Rev. Ling. Rom. 40 
(pp 299-310).

Lucchesi, Dante (1993): The Article System of Cape Verde and Sao Tome
Creole Portuguese: General Principles and Specific Factors. JPCL 8:1,
pp 81-108

Maurer, Philippe (1992): L'Apport lexical bantou en
angolar. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 29, pp 163-174.

Morais-Barbosa, Jorge (1975): Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Sao Tome
and principe: The linguistic situation. In Valkhoff (ed.) (pp

Negreiros, Almada (1895): O dialecto de S. Thom. Vocabulario. Almada

Negreiros: Historia ethnographico da Ilha de S. Thom.

Negreiros, Almada (1928): Etnografia de Sao Tome e outros elementos
linguisticos. Anurio comercial, industrial e agrecola da Provencia de
Sao Toma e Principe.

Schuchardt, Hugo (1882): Kreolische Studien 1: Ueber das
Negerportugiesische von S. Thom (Westafrika). Sitzungsberichte der
kaiserlichen Akademie der

Wissenschaften zu Wien 101 (pp 889-917).

Tenreiro, F. (1956): As ilhas de Sao Tome, de Principe e o territorio
de Sio

Joio Batista de Ajuda. Lisboa: Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa,
Semana do Ultramar.

Thiele, Petra (1989): Zur Spezifizierung von Substrateinflussen auf
die Entwicklung der portugiesisch-basierten Kreolsprachen Westafrikas.
Perl-Matthias (ed.): Beitrage zur Afrolusitanistik und Kreolistik, pp
93-103. Bochum: Brockmeyer

Valkhoff, Marius (1966): Studies in Portuguese and Creole.
Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

Valkhoff, Marius (ed) 1975 Miscel=E2na Luso-Africana. Lisbon: Junta
de Investigacies do Ultramar.

Valkhoff, Marius F. (1975): Miscelena Luso-Africana. Colectrea de
estudos coligidos por M. F. Valkhoff. Lisbon: Junta de Investigacio
Cientificas do Ultramar.

You could also advice your friend to address his/her query to
CreoLIST, which is a discussion on list specifically devoted to
pidgins and creoles. To join the list, send the command "%SUBSCRIBE"
in the _subject field_ (important!) of an otherwise empty message to


Mikael Parkvall

- ----------------------------

You'd be better posting this question to the CREOLIST list:

with a request to let you know the answer as you're not a member of that list.

Norval Smith
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