LINGUIST List 9.11

Wed Jan 7 1998

FYI: Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani Word List

Editor for this issue: Anthony Rodrigues Aristar <aristarlinguistlist.org>


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  1. Sam Sloan, Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani Word List

Message 1: Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani Word List

Date: Sun, 28 Dec 1997 16:13:50 -0500
From: Sam Sloan <sloanishipress.com>
Subject: Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani Word List

KALASHA - KHOWAR - NURISTANI WORD LIST

This is a comparative list of 205 words in English, Kalasha, Khowar,
Nuristani, Hindi-Urdu and Pashtu.

Kalasha is spoken by the so-called "Black Kafirs" who live in the valleys
of Bumboret, Birir and Rumbur in Chitral, Northwest Pakistan.

There are only 3,000 people left who still practice the Kalash religion.
However, there are about 3,000 others who have converted from Kalash to
Islam but who have reverted to speaking Kalasha. Thus, there are a total of
6,000 speakers of Kalasha.

Traditionally, when a person changed his religion from Kalash to Islam, he
stopped speaking Kalasha and started speaking Khowar. The Kalash say that
they came from a place called Tsyam, but nobody knows where that place is
or was.

Those who have reverted to speaking Kalasha live primarily in Urtsun and
Jinjoret Valleys south of Drosh and in the Village of Kalkatak in Chitral.

Nuristani is spoken by the former so-called "Red Kafirs" who live primarily
in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan. There are 100,000 speakers of
Nuristani. There are three varieties of Nuristani: Kativiri, Kamviri and
Mumviri. It is not clear whether these three are dialects or are
independent languages, but they are related. Kativiri is used in my word
list below.

The Nuristanis are an old tribe who, it is believed, were encountered by
Alexander the Great when he came through the area in 327 BC. Some claim
that the Nuristanis are actual descendants of the soldiers of Alexander of
Macedonia. This claim is almost certainly not true, as it seems clear that
the Nuristanis were already there when Alexander arrived, and that his
historians wrote about them.

There is a popular movie entitled "The Man Who Would Be King" staring Sean
Connery which is based upon the legend that the Nuristanis came from
Alexander the Great.

The Nuristanis themselves claim that they are the original Qureish, the
tribe of Muhammad, the Prophet. When the people of Mecca converted to
Islam, there were a few who kept the old religion and were therefore driven
out of Mecca. They migrated to Afghanistan and became the Nuristanis, or so
the Nuristanis say. However, nobody other than the Nuristanis themselves
seem to believe this story to be true.

Nuristan was conquered by King Abdul Rehman of Afghanistan in 1893, who
forcibly converted the Nuristanis to Islam. Previously, their land was
known as Kafirstan and their language as Kafirstani.

Kalasha is classified as being closely related to Khowar but, as this word
list demonstrates, they are far apart and only distantly related. Nuristani
is even more distantly related. These three languages are all classified as
"Dardic" languages.

Included herein are also my Hindi-Urdu and Pashtu word lists. The purpose
for inclusion is simply to demonstrate that Kalasha, Khowar and Nuristani
are not related to Urdu or Pashtu.

Credit is due to Kendall Decker of the Summer Institute of Linguistics for
providing data, although I doubt that Mr. Decker wants to take the credit
(and blame) for my method of transcription.

- Ismail Sloan 


English	Kalasha	Khowar	Nuristani	Hindi-Urdu	Pashtu

body	Che	qalip	jith	jism	badan	
head	shish	kapal	she	sar	sar	
hair	chawar	phur	zhu	bal	wextu	
face	ru	mox	naskor	chehra	max	
eye	ech	ghech	ache	akh	starga	
ear	ka	kar	kor	ekkan	ghwag	
nose	nast	neskar	naso	nak	poza	
mouth	ashi	apak	ashi	muh	zolu	
tooth	dandorik	don	duth	ekdat	ghax	
tounge	jiph	ligini	dits	zaban	jiba	
breast	chuchu	pap	chuk	chati	sina	
belly	kuch	shkama	kutal	pet	xeta	
arm/hand	baza	bazu	gotar	bazu	las	
elbow	harkin	kurkun	apti	kohni	sangal	
palm	pe	phan	dushpar	hatheli	tale	
finger	agu	chamut	ayu	ungli	gota	
fingelnail	nanguzhek	dughur	nachi	naxun	nukh	
leg	khur	dek	zapo	tan	xpaq	
skin	post	phost	chum	jidl	sarman	
bone	athi	kol	ati	hadi	aduke	
heart	hia	hardi	ziri	dil	zaru	
blood	lui	lei	lui	xun	wina	
urine	mutra	miru	tsuio	peshab	mutiaze	
feces	rich	rich	gii	puxana	dake-mutiaze	
village	grom	deh	grom	gau	kale	
house	dur	dur	amu	ghar	kor	
roof	drami	istan	krum	chat	chath	
door	dur	dowaht	du	darwaza	war	
firewood	shula	dar	da	lakri	largi	
broom	shashkoni	mazhini	ska	jharu	jaru	
mortar	dipa	andor	aru	langri	langarei	
pestle	muso	musul	wo	hathi	chetu	
hammer	balka	chota	budil	hathera	satak	
knife	chaku	chaku	chaku	chaqu	chaku	
axe	badok	bardox	wuza	kulhara	tabar	
rope	rajuk	shimeni	mina	rasi	pare	
thread	sutr	sutur	pchiche	dhaga	tar	
needle	suzhik	shunj	chimchich	sui	stan	
cloth	chelegar	zap	pizisna	kapra	kapra	
ring	angushtyer	pulungushtu	angishti	anguthi	gota	
sun	suri	yor	su	suraj	nwar	
moon	mastruk	mas	mos	chand	spogmai	
sky	di	asman	asma	asman	asman	
star	tari	istari	rushto	sitara	store	
rain	piliwe	boshik	agol	baris	baran	
water	ukh	ugh	o	pani	ubu
river	patisholi	sin	nao	darya	sind	
cloud	minji	kot	naru	badal	waryaz	
lighting	indochik	bilpak	dashpulsela	bijili	prakigi	
rainbow	indru	dronhanu	indro	quzah	tal	
wind	sira	gan	dimi	hawa	hawa	
stone	bath	boht	wat	pathar	kane	
path	pon	pon	puth	rasta	lar	
sand	shigo	shughur	tsuyu	ret	shaga	
fire	angar	angar	ango	ag	our	
smoke	thum	kushun	dyum	dhua	luge	
ash	shutik	pheru	asi	rakh	ira	
mud	tuk	toq	shur	kichar	xata	
dust	khatur	gihth	paras	miti	gard	
gold	sue	sorum	sun	sona	zar	
tree	muth	kan	kanu	daraxt	wana	
leaf	pu	chan	pur	pata	pana	
root	iznos	iwak	lu	jhar	jarare	
thorn	chuk	zux	tai	kata	azghe	
flower	gamburi	gamburi	pish	phul	gwal	
fruit	mewa	mewa	miwa	phal	mewa	
mango	am	am	am	am	am	
banana	kela	kela	kila	kela	kela	
wheat	ghum	gom	gum	gehu	ghanam	
millet	ain	gras	ro	bajra	warbashi	
rice	grinzh	grinj	mo	chawal	wrije	
potato	alu	alu	aluk	alu	alu	
eggplant	khalia	patigan	banjon	baenan	tor-batingar	
groundnut	bum-pali	mum-phali	mom-phali	mun-phali	mumpali	
chili	mach	mahch	murch	mirch	marchake	
turmeric	zechawa	zehchawa	zarchawa	haldi	kurkaman	
garlic	weshnu	wrezhnu	wezhnu	lehsan	uga	
onion	kachenduk	trashtu	cheknuk	piaz	piaz	
cauliflower	gobi	gobi	gulpi	gobi	gobi	
tomato	patingel	patingel	patingal	tamatar	sur-batingar	
oil	tel	tel	til	tel	tel	
salt	lu	trup	zhukh	namak	malga	
meat	mos	phushur	bete	gosht	ghwaxa	
fat	me	ghap	ske	cherbi	wazda	
fish	matsi	matsi	omatsa	machli	kab	
chicken	kakawak	kahak	kok	murghi	charga	
egg	ayukun	ayukun	puduk	anda	hu	
cow	gakh	leshu	go	gae	ghwa	
buffalo	gamesh	gamesh	mashigo	bhes	mexa	
milk	chhir	chhir	zu	dudh	pe	
horns	shin	surung	shin	sing	xkar	
tail	dameri	rum	demee	dum	lake	
goat	pai	pai	washi	bakri	biza	
dog	shua	reni	kui	kuta	spe	
snake	gokh	ai	bibimsta	saap	mar	
monkey	meka	mukul	maka	bandar	bizo	
mosquito	trakmangash	kagunu	tarak	machar	mashe	
ant	pililak	pilili	ramikh	chiuti	mege	
spider	upalak	shubinak	parkemuk	makri	jola	
name	nom	nam	nom	nam	num	
man	much	mosh	manshi	admi	sare	
woman	istizha	kimeri	jukur	urat	xaza	
child	suda	tsiq	pirmi	bacha	mashum	
father	dada	tat	to	bap	plar	
mother	aya	nan	nu	ma	mor	
brother	baya	brar	bro	bhai	ror	
sister	baba	ispisar	sus	bahen	xor	
son	putr	zhao	pitr	beta	zwe	
daughter	chu	zhur	jukh	beti	lur	
husband	beru	mosh	mach	shohar	xawand	
wife	ja	bok	shtiri	bivi	xaza	
boy	purushguek	daq	midi	larka	halak	
girl	shtrizhaguek	kumoru	jukh	larki	jine	
day	bas	anus	gijur	din	wraz	
night	rat	chhui	radur	rat	shpa	
morning	adua	chhuchhi	puchkul	subah	sahar	
noon	hulukuna	granish	grish	dopaher	gharma	
afternoon	chakdiwio	sham	shom	sham	maxam	
yesterday	dosh	dosh	dus	kal	parun	
today	oja	hanun	shirakgijur	aj	nan	
tomorrow	chopo	pengachui	dalke	ainda-kal	saba	
week	sat-bas	hafta	agar	hafta	hafta	
month	mastruk	mas	mos	mihana	miasht	
year	kao	sal	si	sal	kal	
old	shumberan	paranu	syuma	purana	zor	
new	noa	nogh	nui	nea	nawe	
good	prusht	jam	lasta	acha	xu	
bad	shum	shum	digar	xarab	xarab	
wet	grila	zah	zheli	bhiga	lund	
dry	shushta	ChuChhu	drisht	xushk	wach	
long	driga	drung	darga	lamba	ugud	
short	betsak	iskurdi	moti	chota	lund	
hot	tapala	pech	pech	garam	tod	
cold	osh	ushak	yuz	thanda	yax	
right	drach	hoski	dachin	dae	xe	
left	kawri	kholi	ka	bae	gas	
near	shoiuna	shoi	tevire	qarib	nizde	
far	desha	duderi	badyur	dur	lare	
big	gada	Lot	alr	bara	ghat	
small	chutyak	tsiq	parmi	chota	warkote	
heavy	anguraka	qai	gamwo	bhari	drund	
light	lots	lots	luka	halka	spak	
above	tara	sora	ula	upar	uchat	
below	nuna	mula	viri	niche	lande	
white	goirak	shpiru	kashir	sufed	spin	
black	krizhna	sha	zhi	kala	tor	
red	lachia	krui	za	lal	sur	
one	ek	i	ew	ek	yao	
two	du	ju	dui	do	dwa	
three	tre	troi	tere	tin	dre	
four	chao	Chor	shtewo	char	salor	
five	poin	poch	puch	pach	pinza	
six	sho	Chhoi	shu	che	shpag	
seven	sat	sot	suth	sat	uwe	
eight	asht	usht	ushth	ath	atu	
nine	no	niu	nu	nao	naha	
ten	dash	jush	duts	das	las	
eleven	dashyega	sushi	yanits	gyara	yaolas	
twelve	dashyedua	johju	dits	bara	dolas	
twenty	bishi	bishir	vatsi	bis	shal	
one-hundred	shor	shor	putsi	ekso	sal
who	kura	ka	katsi	kun	sok	
what	kia	kiagh	kai	kya	su	
where	kawa	kura	kor	kidhar	charta	
when	kayo	kiawaht	koi	kab	kala	
how-many	kimon	kanduri	chuk	kitne	somra	
which	kure	kiwali	gajista	kensa	kam	
this	ia	haya	eni	ye	da	
that	se	hes	iki	wo	agha	
these	emi	hamit	amni	ye	da	
those	eli	het	amki	wo	agha	
same	barubar	barabar	erngest	ekhi	yaoshan	
whole	taza	pura	pura	mukamal	rogh	
broken	chhina	Chhirdu	patingusti	tuta	mat	
few	chutyak	kam	echok	thora	lag	
many	bo	bo	baluk	ziada	der	
all	sao	saf	tsak	sab	tol	
eat	zhuk	zhibik	yu	tumkhao	xoral	
bite	ashato	oyoi	atushio	katna	chichal	
hungry	anora	Chuyi	io	bhukh	lagna	
drink	pi	pik	pi	pina	skal	
thirsty	dan	trush	opi	lagna	kedal	
sleep	dudi	oreik	prush	sona	udakedal	
lay	drekda	porik	chi	letna	samlastal	
sit	nas	nishik	nis	baethna	kenastal	
give	pra	dik	pre	dena	warkawal	
burn	upweik	paleik	lush	jalana	talargi	
die	anashi	brik	misi	marna	mrakedal	
kill	nash	mareik	jai	marna	wajal	
fly	upul	ulik	undr	urna	alwatal	
walk!	kasi	kosik	esti	chalna	paidalarsha	
run	adyae	deik	achu	durna	mandawahal	
go	par	bik	etu	jana	talal	
come	a	gik	hatsi	ana	ratlal	
speak	ama	ludik	wila	bolna	wayal	
heard	sanga	kara	singa	suna	awredal	
see	pashi	poshik	waa	dekhna	katal	
I	a	awa	uts	mae	zu	
you	tu	tu	twi	tum	tu	
you-(formal)	tu	tu	twi	ap	taso	
he/she	asa	hes	iki	vo	hagha	
we	abi	spa	imu	ham	munga	
you-(plural)	abi	pisa	sho	tum	taso	
they	eli	het	amki	vo	haghwi	
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