LINGUIST List 9.460

Thu Mar 26 1998

Sum: (UN)CERTAINTY

Editor for this issue: James German <jameslinguistlist.org>


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  1. Henny Klein, SUMMARY: (UN)CERTAINTY (part 2)

Message 1: SUMMARY: (UN)CERTAINTY (part 2)

Date: Wed, 25 Mar 1998 09:46:57 CET
From: Henny Klein <E.H.Kleinfarm.rug.nl>
Subject: SUMMARY: (UN)CERTAINTY (part 2)

SUMMARY: (UN)CERTAINTY (part 2)

For the original question: see my former SUMMARY: (UN)CERTAINTY,
LINGUIST March 5th 1998. This first summary evoked more responses,
(discussions as well as references), and reading one paper I often
found other ones. I'm happy to present you

1. an additional alphabetical list of references about (un)certainty,
modality and hedges (sometimes with summary or comments)
2. some further suggestions 
3. a specific group of references which refer to rejections in spoken
language.

This time, I'm very grateful to:
 Jan Engh
 Anita Fetzer	
 Suzette Haden Elgin
 Ken Hyland
 Isabelle Leglise
 Beverly Lewin
 Andrea Rocci

1. REFERENCES:

"About scales, modality and polysemy:"
Anscombre J.C., (dir), 1995, Theorie des Topoi, Paris : Kime.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1978). Universals in language usage:
Politeness phenomena. In E.N. Goody (Ed.), Questions and Politeness.
(pp. 56-288). Cambridge: CUP.

Clemen, G. (1997). The Concept of Hedging: Origins, Approaches and
Definitions. In R. Markkanen & H. Schr"der (Eds.), Hedging and
Discourse: Approaches to the Analysis of a Pragmatic Phenomenon in
Academic Texts. (pp. 235-248). Berlin/ New York: de Gruyter.

"About scales, modality and polysemy:"
Culioli A., 1990, Pour une linguistique de l'enonciation, Paris: 
Ophrys.

"(un)certainty and medical field: "THE" study in France (well known in
human factors and psycholinguistics)" 
Eybalin M.-F. et Bisseret A., 1980, Organisation subjective d'un 
ensemble d'expresions de certitude d'un diagnostic, rapport DM 8010 
R03, INRIA.

Foley P.J., 1959, The expression of certainty. American Journal of
Psychology n 72, 614-615. 
("Foley should have continued his work, but I don't know about recent 
references")

"The occurrence of modals, hedges and emphatics across different text
types." 
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R.B. (1997). On the Writing of Science and the 
Science of Writing: Hedging in Science Text and Elsewhere. In R. 
Markkanen & H. Schroeder (Eds.), Hedging and Discourse: Approaches to 
the Analysis of a Pragmatic Phenomenon in Academic Texts. (pp. 
151-167). Berlin/ New York: de Gruyter.

"The occurrence of various expressions of (un)certainty in different
corpora and their presence in ESL textbooks:" 
Holmes, J. 1988. Doubt and Certainty in ESL Textbooks. Applied 
Linguistics, 9, 21-44.

"Just published:"
Hyland, Ken. 1998. Hedging in scientific research articles.
Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. ISBN 90 272 5067 7 (Eur) /
1-55619-816-7 (US).

"The start of the study of `hedges':"
Lakoff, G. 1972. Hedges: A Study in Meaning Criteria and the Logic of
Fuzzy Concepts. Papers from the Eight Regional Meeting of the Chicago
Linguistic Society 1972, 183-228.

"About scales, modality and polysemy:"
Lamarche L., 1977, "Niveau relatif de polysemie de 50 adjectifs
qualificatifs", Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science n 9, 59-67

"I have been working on hedging and my paper covers some of the
general problems (which you mention under "the question") and its
applicability to social science research texts" 
Lewin, Beverly A. "Hedging: Form and Function in Scientific Research
Texts" to appear in Fortanet and Palmer (Eds.)Discourse Studies for
Academic Purposes.

Meyer, P.G. (1997). Hedging Strategies in Written Academic Discourse:
Strengthening the Argument by Weakening the Claim. In R. Markkanen &
H. Schroeder (Eds.), Hedging and Discourse: Approaches to the 
Analysis of a Pragmatic Phenomenon in Academic Texts. (pp. 21-41). 
Berlin/ New York: de Gruyter.

Myers, G. 1985. Text as Knowledge Claims: The Social Construction of
Two Biology Articles. Social Studies of Science, 15, 593-630.

Myers, G. 1989. The Pragmatics of Politeness in Scientific Articles.
Applied Linguistics, 10, 1-35.

Prince, E.F., Frader, J., and Bosk, C. (1982). On hedging in
physician-physician discourse. In R. J. Di Pietro (Ed) Linguistics
and the Professions, pp. 83-97, New Jersey: Ablex.

Schroeder, H. and Zimmer, D. (1997). Hedging Research in Pragmatics: A
Bibliographic Research Guide to Hedging. In R. Markkanen & H.
Schroeder (Eds.), Hedging and Discourse: Approaches to the Analysis of
a Pragmatic Phenomenon in Academic Texts. (pp. 249-271). Berlin/ New
York: de Gruyter.

Simon-Vandenbergen, A. 1997. Modal (Un)certainty in Political
Discourse: A Functional Account. Language Sciences, 19, 341-356.

Skelton, J. 1997. The Representation of Truth in Academic Medical
Writing. Applied Linguistics, 18, 121-140.

Skelton, J. (1997). How to Tell the Truth in `The British Medical
Journal': Patterns of Judgement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. In R.
Markkanen & H. Schroeder (Eds.), Hedging and Discourse: Approaches to
the Analysis of a Pragmatic Phenomenon in Academic Texts. (pp. 42-63).
Berlin/ New York: de Gruyter.

"about (un)certainty:"
TIBERGHIEN G., 1971, Certitude et memoire, These de doctorat de 3eme
cycle, Editions du CNRS.


2. SUGGESTIONS:

I just want to mention that in the past few years the medical journals
have had a number of articles (often series of articles) on the
subject of "outcomes," in which the certainty/uncertainty modes of
discourse feature prominently. (I have to find them yet, HK)

Jan Engh <jan.enghub.uio.no> wrote:
In case you are interested in Norwegian/Scandinavian papers on
epistemic modality, give me a hint. (maybe someone else is, HK)


3.REJECTIONS IN SPOKEN DISCOURSE: 

Anita:" I have done my PhD on rejections and various of attenuating
their negative impact on the communication partners involved. The
model which I designed for the investigation of natural language
communication has further been applied to language teaching and
indexical and explicit modes of representing 'meaning'. My model
refers to spoken discourse only."

Fetzer, Anita. Negative Interaktionen: kommunikative Strategien im
britischen Englisch und interkulturelle Inferenzen. Frankfurt/Main:
Peter Lang. 1994

- ---, Preference organization and interactive language teaching.
Communicative strategies in a	German-English context. IRAL XXXIV/2,
1996, 77-93

- ---, Preference organization und Sprechfertigkeit im engl.-dt.
Kontext. Vom propositionalen Schlagabtausch zur interkulturellen
Kompetenz. GAL Bulletin, 24/2, 1996, 63-80

- ---, Konversationsanalyse und Konversationsunterricht. Zeitschrift
fuer Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht [online], 2,1, 1997.
http://www.ualberta.ca/~german/ejournal/-ejournal.html, pp.29

- ---, Recontextualizing context. In ECCS '97. Conference Proceedings.
European Conference on Cognitive Science. April 	9-11, 1997.
Manchester U.K., 176-180

- ---, Negative contextualization: a socio-semiotic approach to
language teaching. In Puetz, Martin.(ed.). The cultural context in
foreign language teaching. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. 1997, 85-109

- ---, Mehr-sprachl.-Material versus weniger-sprachl.-Material:	Zur
Kontextualisierungspotenz fuer Zurueckweisungen. In Vogel, Klaus und
Boerner, Wolfgang.(eds.) Sprach- und Kulturkontraste im
Fremdsprachenunterricht. Tuebingen: Narr. 1998

- ---, Polite rejections: teaching interpersonal communication skills.
In Dakowska, Maria.(ed.). 	English in the Modern World. Im Druck

- ---, NEIN-SAGEN. In Pittner, Robert und Pittner, Karin.(eds.).
Beitraege zu Sprache & Spra	chen, 5. Muenchener Linguistik Tage.
Muenchen: Lincom Europa. 1998

- ---, Kontextualisierung im nicht-praeferierten Format. In Pittner,
Robert und Pittner, Karin.(eds.). Beitraege zu Sprache & Sprachen, 6.
Muenchener Linguistik Tage. 	Muenchen: Lincom Europa. Im Druck

- ---, Konversationsunterricht: eine kommunikative Einbahnstrasse?. In
Pittner, Robert und Pittner, Karin.(eds.). Beitraege zu Sprache &
Sprachen, 6. Muenchener Linguistik Tage. Muenchen: Lincom Europa. Im
Druck

- ---, Contextualization in a German-English context: face-wants/needs
and information- wants/needs. In Raasch, Albert.(ed.). Adult Language
Learning. Saarbruecken. Im Druck

- ---, NO THANKS: a socio-semiotic appproach. In Hirsch, Richard.
(ed.). Cultural Semiotics. Erscheint demnaechst 


Henny Klein email: hkleinfarm.rug.nl
Groningen University Centre for Pharmacy tel: +31 50 3637571
Social Pharmacy and Pharmacoepidemiology fax: +31 50 3633311
A. Deusinglaan 2 
9713 AW Groningen, The Netherlands
 http://www.let.rug.nl/Linguistics/Klein.html
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