LINGUIST List 9.469

Fri Mar 27 1998

Sum: Twin Language

Editor for this issue: Martin Jacobsen <>


  1. Bernard Comrie, Twin Language

Message 1: Twin Language

Date: Thu, 26 Mar 1998 19:44:51 -0700
From: Bernard Comrie <>
Subject: Twin Language

Some time ago I posted a query to the Linguist List asking for
references on twin languages (cryptophasia). Since a couple of people
have since asked me what I found, I think it might be useful for me to
post my bibliographical findings to the List. In addition, Jennifer
Ganger <> maintains a more general bibliography
on twins' languages.

The general conclusion of the literature is that twin languages are
not particularly autonomous; their apparent autonomy reflects rather
greater distortion than normal of the language(s) of the twins'

References on Twin Languages (cryptophasia)

Bakker, Peter. 1987. Autonomous Languages: Signed and Spoken Languages
created by children in the light of Bickerton's Bioprogram
Hypothesis. University of Amsterdam, Publikaties van het instituut
voor algemene taalwetenschap, number 53. [The best single source.]

Bakker, P. 1987. Autonomous languages of twins. Acta
Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:233-238.

Bakker, P. 1990. Autonomous language - natural or not? In: Walter Koch
(ed.) - Natuerlichkeit der Sprache und der Kultur. Bochum:
Brockmeyer. pp. 74-95.

Diehl, Randy L. & Kolodzey, Katherine F. 1980. The sound system of
Spaka. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 67: 2112-2114.

Diehl, Randy L. & Kolodzey, Katherine F. 1981. Spaka: A privative
language. Language 57: 406-424.

Dodd, Barbara & Sandra McEvoy. 1994. Twin language or phonological
disorder?.Journal of Child Language 21: 273-289.

Luebbe, Henning. Soziologische Aspekte einer Theorie des
Spracherwerbs. Freiburg: Hochschulverlag.

Luria, A. R., and F. Ia. Yudovich. 1971. Speech and the development of
mental processes in the child. Baltimore: Penguin.

Malmstrom, P.M & Silva, M.N. 1986. Twin talk. Manifestations of twin
status in the speech of toddlers. Journal of Child Language 13:

Savic, Svenka. 1980. How twins learn to talk. New York: Academic
Press (Serbo-Croatian original: Kako blizanci uce da govore. Novi Sad,
1977: University of Novi Sad).

Zazzo, R. 1960. Les jumeaux. Le couple et la personne. Paris: Presses
Universitaires de France.

Bernard Comrie
Dept of Linguistics GFS-301 tel +1 213 740 3674
University of Southern California fax +1 213 740 9306
Los Angeles, CA 90089-1693, USA e-mail

Address from mid-May 1998 (new telephone, fax, e-mail not yet
available): Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Inselstrasse 22-26 D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
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