This volume explores the use of literacy outside the mainstream in different contexts throughout the world. It is divided into four parts. The first section presents an anthropological perspective--analyzing the society and the individual in a society. The second presents a psychological perspective--focusing on the individuals themselves and analyzing the cognitive and affective development of young children as they acquire literacy in their first and second languages. The third presents an educational perspective--highlighting the variations in educational approaches in different societies as well as the outcomes of these approaches. The final section summarizes the studies presented in this volume. Both theoretical issues and educational implications related to the development of literacy in two languages are discussed. An attempt is also made to open up new directions in the study of literacy development in multilingual contexts by bringing these various disciplinary perspectives together.