"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
A Minimalist Approach to Intrasentential Code Switching
This book explores the consequences of Chomsky's Minimalist Program for the data of bilingual language mixture. In the model developed, lexical items may be drawn from the lexicon of either language to introduce features into the numeration which must be checked for convergence in the same way as monolingual features must be checked (or must not "mismatch"). The author's proposed Disjunction Theorem further provides that code switching is impossible in the computation N' since the rule ordering (or constraint ranking) associated with the phonological component is not preserved under union (code switching). An extensive discussion shows that the analyses of previous "constraint-oriented" proposals may be derived from the basic feature-checking apparatus of this system. An original corpus of Spanish-Nahuatl code switching data is additionally presented.
The work also discusses applied issues in bilingualism, touching upon assessment, tracking of minority-language students, and notions of bilingual competence and attributed language "deficits." Here the author contends that code switchers are exquisitely sensitive to extremely subtle requirements of both their languages, just as monolinguals are sensitive to theirs. This book will be of interest to scholars in linguistics, bilingualism, and language education.