It was about one and a half years ago that I finally I arrived where I had always wanted to be and do what I had always wanted-- teach students, support small language communities and conduct research on African languages on my doorstep. The University of Cape Town and my new colleagues welcomed my efforts to establish the Centre for African Language Diversity-- CALDi as well as The African Language Archive-- TALA and I was recently appointed the Mellon Research Chair: African Language Diversity this initiative. The main aim of CALDi is to train young African scholars in descriptive linguistics and open up space for research into African languages at UCT with the hopes of countering the dominance of African linguistics outside the continent. It has been a great challenge for which my whole career has been a form of preparation...Read more
The Cambridge Handbook of Communication Disorders examines the full range of developmental and acquired communication disorders and provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to the epidemiology, aetiology and clinical features of these disorders.
This study offers an explanation to a long-standing question in the typological distinction among languages with respect to the formation of wh-questions (i.e. interrogatives which use question words such as 'who' and 'what'). It is well-known that languages differ in the position of the question word(s) in a wh-question. It is proposed that both the availability of question particles and the properties of question words contribute to the typological distinctions found. In particular, the author argues that the availability of question particles correlates with the lack of fronting of question words. A theory of Clausal Typing is proposed to account for this correlation. More specifically, languages employ either question particles or a fronting strategy to "type" a clause as a wh-question. The theory of Clausal Typing together with the Principle of Economy of Derivation predicts that (a) no language has the option of alternating between the two methods of Clausal Typing and thus there are no languages with "optional fronting" of question words and (b) fronting of one question word is sufficient to type a clause as a wh-question. Apparent counterexamples to the predictions involving "optional fronting" languages such as Bahasa Indonesia and Egyptian Arabic as well as "multiple fronting" languages such as Hungarian and Bulgarian are discussed and accounted for.
The internal structure of question words is further shown to shed light on two particular issues in the literature: (i) the lack of scope ambiguity in "in-situ" languages such as Mandarin Chinese (a language without fronting of question words); and (ii) the question of whether "in-situ" question words undergo fronting at Logical Form. It is proposed that question words in Mandarin are indefinite noun phrases without inherent quantificational force, and that this contributes to the lack of scope ambiguity in the language. In addition, arguments for and against LF fronting of question words are examined. It is shown that evidence against such fronting does not hold and that the properties of question words in "in-situ" languages do not preclude fronting at LF.