"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
"Washback" refers to the influence of language testing on teaching and
learning. This volume, at the important intersection of language testing
and teaching practices, presents theoretical, methodological, and practical
guidance for current and future washback studies. It provides an overview
of the complexity of washback and the various contextual factors entangled
within testing, teaching, and learning and presents empirical studies from
around the world that offer insights into the effects of washback in
specific educational contexts and models of research on which future
studies can be based.
"Washback in Language Testing: Research Contexts and Methods" is a valuable
resource for those who are interested in the application of findings to
actual teaching and learning situations or conduct washback research in
their own contexts, including educational and psychological testing
experts, alternative assessment people in all fields, and policy- and
decision-makers in educational and testing organizations.