"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Causality Marking Across Levels of Language Structure
A cognitive semantic analysis of causal verbs and causal connectives in Dutch
Meaning and use of causality marking expressions are determined by our
every-day understanding of causal relations. This claim has been put
forward in several studies on causal expressions. So far, causality markers
of different types (e.g. causal auxiliary verbs and causal connectives)
have mainly been studied in isolation. The present study constructs an
integrative perspective on the semantics of causality markers. Making use
of empirical methods, it analyzes meaning and use of the Dutch causal verbs
'doen' and 'laten' manifest on the 'clause level', and of the Dutch causal
connectives 'daardoor', 'daarom' and 'dus' manifest on the 'discourse
level' of the linguistic structure. The integrative usage-based perspective
taken here refines the understanding of the linguistic expression of
causality in general, as well as the understanding of mechanisms relevant
at the level of individual constructions. The findings of this study
suggest that discourse level expressions are subject to the same principles
and mechanisms as the clause-level phenomena that are usually focused on in
cognitive grammars. In addition, it shows that cognitive semantic
principles can successfully be used to refine textlinguistic theories on
causal expressions. The results of this study offer additional empirical
evidence for a basic assumption in cognitive semantic theory, namely, that
a direct link exists between semantic categories and the conceptual
categories in every-day thinking.
Causality marking across levels of language structure is of interest to
scholars concerned with the linguistic expression of causality, and to
scholars working in the fields of text linguistics or (cognitive) semantics.