"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The purpose of this book is to explore "inner speech" and its connections
to second language (L2) learning. Inner speech, or silent self-directed
speaking, enables the faculty to "think" words and is the main instrument
for verbal thought. Inner speech originates in first language (L1) social
discourse and develops in childhood through a process of internalization.
In this book it is postulated that, given certain conditions of L2
learning, it is possible to develop L2 inner speech as a result of the
interiorization of L2 social speech. Inner speech has been quite
extensively investigated from an L1 perspective. The L2 acquisition field,
however, has been slow in acknowledging the importance of inner speech in
learning another language. Although within the past decade there have been
some notable efforts to explore the topic from an L2 point of view, these
efforts have remained in the form of isolated articles and short sections
in larger volumes. This book reviews the extant literature on L1-L2 inner
speech in its attempt to offer a coherent and comprehensive account of the
phenomenon. The book draws mainly from Vygotskyan sociocultural theory for
insights into the nature of L2 inner speech and the processes that engender
it and characterize its development. The pedagogical implications of
recognizing the crucial role inner speech plays in L2 learning are also
Inner Speech – L2 comprises a discussion of the historical and theoretical
foundations of the concept of inner speech; a review of studies related to
L1 and L2 inner speech and its methodology of research; an interpretive
account of the origin, nature, and development of L2 inner speech from a
sociocultural theory point of view; and various pedagogical implications
and suggestions for further research.