"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Phonetics and Phonology of Korean Prosody: Intonational Phonology and Prosodic Structure
Korean speech rhythms differ in interesting ways from those of English, especially in the role of intonationally defined prosodic groupings, which influence the pronunciation of consonants and vowels as profoundly as does stress in English. This account of Korean intonational rhythms is based on experiments that suggest a hierarchy of intonationally defined groupings, which exert different influences on the consonants and vowels at their edges. For example, the smaller accentual phrase affects the pronunciation of a class of consonants which are voiceless (sounding like Spanish "p" or "ch") in phrase-initial position, but become voiced (like English "b" or "j") in phrase-medial position. The larger intonational phrase also affects these consonants by making exceptions to the generalization that they will be pronounced as nasals (like French "m" or "gn") when they occur before another nasal. Other experiments show that speakers vary the intonational groupings that they assign to any string of words, in ways that reflect influence from many other aspects of the utterance including overall speech tempo, the words' syntactic structure and relative predictability, and the signalling of narrow focus of attention on any particular word. Significantly, the influence of focus of attention was paramount, contrary to many current linguistic theories which propose syntactic structure as the primary determinant of prosodic rhythms.