"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This volume contains a collection of recent papers on Free Logic which cover a wide range of topics. These topics show that Free Logic is applied not only in traditional philosophical areas, but also in various contexts of modern formal logic as well as in the discussion of theoretical aspects of programming.
Part I of the book covers theories of names and definite descriptions. Part II contains papers on various topics in the logic of modalities. Part III is devoted to semantics and programming. In part IV Free Logic is used to analyse and discuss topics from the history of philosophy. In addition, one of the founders of Free Logic, Karel Lambert, not only contributes an article to this volume, but he also comments the papers of all the other authors.
So this book will be of interest not only to philosophers and logicians, but also to computer scientists and researchers interested in foundational aspects of computer programming.
Preface. Free Logic: A Fifty-Year Past and an Open Future; E. Morscher, P. Simons. Part I: Names and Definite Descriptions. Free Logic and Definite Descriptions; K. Lambert. Calculi of Names: Free and Modal; P. Simons. Part II: Modalities. Free Logic and uantification in Syntactic Modal Contexts; P. Schweizer. Substitution, uantifiers and Identity in Modal Logic; S. Ghilardi. Free Epistemic Logic; W. Lenzen. Part III: Semantics and Programming. Supervaluational Free Logic and the Logic of Information Growth; J.B. Escriba. `No Input, No Output' Logic; S. Lehmann. Free Logic in Program Specification and Verification; R.D. Gumb. Part IV: History. Existence and Reference in Medieval Logic; G. Klima. Can Meinongian Logic Be Free?; J. Pasniczek. Part V: Comments. Comments; K. Lambert. Index of persons.