"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Syntax of Negation and the Licensing of Negative Polarity Items in Hindi
This books studies syntax of NPIs and their interaction with sentential
negatives in Hindi. It outlines the clause structure of Hindi and locates
the syntactic position of sentential negatives as well as constituent
negatives within the structure. It is argued that sentential negative in
Hindi negation marker heads its own maximal projection, NegP, which is
immediately dominated by TP.
In addition to locating the position of negation markers in the clause
structure, it outlines the distribution of negative polarity items (NPIs)
in Hindi and the structural constraints on their licensing by sentential
negative. The book argues that an NPI in Hindi is licensed overtly in the
course of derivation by a c-commanding negative marker. The bulk of the
evidence presented in this book argues against previous theoretical
accounts that claim that NPI licensing involves covert syntactic operations
such as LF movement or reconstruction. With respect to the classification
of NPIs , this book also shows the existence of two different types of NPIs
in Hindi; namely, strong NPIs and weak NPIs. Strong NPIs require a clause
mate c-commanding negative licensor, whereas weak NPIs are quantifiers and
are similar to free choice 'any' in English that are interpreted as NPIs in
the presence of a c-commanding negative licensor.