A complement clause is used instead of a noun phrase; for example one can
say either I heard [the result] or I heard [that England beat France].
Languages lacking complement clauses employ complementation strategies to
achieve similar semantic results. Detailed studies of particular languages,
including Akkadian, Israeli, Jarawara, and Pennsylvania German, are framed
by R.M. W. Dixon's introduction, which sets out the range of issues, and
his conclusion, which draws together the evidence and the arguments.