"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This book concerns the verbal predicate in formal and colloquial varieties of Arabic. The derivation of verb stems, the expression of Tense, Mood and Aspect, and the formation of verbal complexes are analyzed within the framework of Functional Grammar. The relevant parts of this framework are discussed and evaluated, leading to an extended version of the Functional-Grammar model of underlying clause structure. The extended model forms the basis for an insightful description of the verbal system in Arabic. The study breaks with the tradition of ascribing a single primary meaning to each Arabic verb form, and shows that most verb forms may express a number of different, but diachronically related Tense-Mood-and-Aspect values. The merits of this approach are illustrated most strikingly in the powerful analysis of the relation between the meaning and form of verbal complexes with the auxiliary verb ka:n. The author pays attention to similarities as well as differences in the verbal systems of the various types of Arabic, and discusses most earlier publications on the subject. She presents an overview which will serve as a work of reference for scholars in the field of Arabic linguistics. The consistent application of the Functional-Grammar model leads to new insights into the functions and development of Arabic verb forms, and provides a firm basis for further empirical and theoretical research.