"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Tyvan (aka Tuvan/Tuvinian) is spoken by 150-200,000 people in the Republic
of Tyva in south centra Siberia. Tyvan (along with the closely related
Tofalar) stand out among the Turkic languages in several ways.
Tyvan has three sets of phonemic vowels: plain, long, and creaky voice.
Word-initially obstruents exhibit a contrast between unaspirated/aspirated
or voiced/voiceless, depending on the speaker.
There is also a phonemically marginal series of long nasalized vowels.
Tyvan has only one inflectional series for verbs, prefering enclitic
pronominals in most forms (in main clauses).
Large numbers of Mongolisms and Mongolian derivational affixes are found,
the latter often appearing with Turkic roots. Russian loans are also
numerous, and in the speech of certain younger residents of Kyzyl,
contact-induced restructuring can be observed. This study is a description
of present day Tyvan, particularly as used in the capital city of Kyzyl.
This is the first field-based study of Tyvan available in English and the
first description of Kyzyl Tyvan in any language.