"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This book is a very detailed and comprehensive examination of conditional sentences in English. Unlike previous literature on the subject, it does not confine itself to one or two aspects of conditionals, but attempts to give an all-round linguistic view of the topic. The more traditional areas of tense and mood possibilities in conditionals and the types of possible world to which a conditional may refer are closely examined, with new evidence showing that the usual bi- or tripartite schema in this area needs both clarification and elaboration. The authors provide a fine-grained classification of conditionals and a rich analysis of their function(s) in discourse, which will be of interest both in its own right and as part of the complete picture of conditionals given here. Separate chapters on the question of 'necessary and/or sufficient conditions' and the syntax of conditionals retain an emphasis on the relation of semantics and syntax to discourse, providing original analyses of these topics. A range of corpora is exploited to provide a wealth of empirical data which both illustrate and shape theoretical discussion. The authors do not espouse any particular linguistic framework, but provide analyses which blend pragmatics, descriptive syntax and semantics. An extensive glossary gives details both of the specific meanings attributed here to traditional linguistic terms and new terms which are introduced by the authors in their analysis of the many features of conditional sentences which are here described for the first time.
FROM THE CONTENTS
2 Conditional connecting devices
3 Some preliminary terminology
4 The possible-world typology of conditionals
5 The use of tenses in possible-world conditionals
6 Modalized case-specifying conditionals
7 The three canonical tense patterns
8 The relation between the theoretical world and the actual world