"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Anaphoric Expressions in the Peranakan Javanese of Semarang
In this monograph the properties of the anaphoric expressions found in
Peranakan (ethnically Chinese) Javanese as spoken in the city of Semarang
are examined. This is the first detailed study of Peranakan Javanese and
the first monograph-length examination of anaphora in an Indonesian
language. Three types of anaphoric expressions in Peranakan are discussed:
true reflexives, "pseudo-reflexives" and pronouns. It is shown that the
distribution of true reflexives and pronouns conforms to Conditions A and B
of the Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981). The third type of anaphoric
expression, the pseudo-reflexive, however, appears to constitute a
problematic case for the Binding Theory.
Various analyses to account for the peculiar distribution of
pseudo-reflexives in Peranakan are considered and it is concluded that
pseudo-reflexives are anaphoric forms that are neither pronouns nor
reflexives. The distribution of anaphoric expressions in passives,
ditransitives, and the sing-construction (relative clauses) is then
examined, and analyses for various complications in the binding properties
exhibited in these constructions are proposed. Although a
semantically-based analysis appears on initial examination to account for
the puzzling behavior of anaphoric expressions in the three constructions,
it is shown that such an analysis is less adequate than an analysis based
on a combination of c-command and semantics. In addition, the use of
anaphoric expressions for non-local coreference is examined. The final
chapter of the monograph is devoted to comparing anaphoric expressions used
in Peranakan and those used in the Javanese variety spoken by Pribumi
(ethnically Javanese) speakers. A markedly different anaphoric system is
found in the language of Pribumi speakers.