"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars
This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of
structure-preserving categorial grammars.
The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative
categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are
proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, that is as deductive systems
which take advantage of the linear order of the syntactic categories. In
Chapter 4 they are formulated as polynomial parsing algorithms. An
important aspect is the formulation of efficient methods for handling
product formulas in the parsing process.
The second part of the book deals with Lambek style categorial grammars. A
simple and elegant method for automatic recognition is formulated in
Chapter 5 and its syntactic and semantic properties are explored in the
subsequent chapters. A surprising result is the connection between the
number of semantic readings of a sequent and the binomial coefficient
discussed in Chapter 6. The results of polynomiality in Chapter 7 are
grounded on explicit algorithms which generalize and improve previous results.
The parsing techniques presented in this book are among the first complete
applications of chart-parsing methods to logical grammars and lay the
ground for a new approach to parsing with type-logical grammars.